Automotive and Technology

Depending on who you ask, the mobile telephone is either the greatest invention of the twentieth century or the most annoying. It is undeniable that the technology behind the mobile phone is one of the greatest inventions and that advances in technology keep making the cell phone more and more a must have device.

Mobile telephones have changed the world of communication. From the first call made in 1946 on one of only a handful of portable phones to any one of the millions, probably billions of calls made today, the mobile or cell phone has changed the course of communication forever.

Day to Day Life

Before the invention of the cell phone people went about their daily lives in a constant state of questioning – even if they didn’t realize they were doing so. When a friend or family member went on vacation they wondered if the trip was made safely. When a child left for college parents wondered if they made it without car trouble. It is doubtful that people even realized they were always in a state of questioning.

The mobile phone changed all of the questioning. Now, mothers could call and find out if their children made it to their destination without any mishaps. Husbands could tell their wives when they were running late.

If they weren’t wondering about someone’s whereabouts they were wishing they had remembered to tell them something before they were away from their office or home phone. Perhaps it was to stop and pick up the kids or to go by the bank because they loan officer called. Whatever the reason, before the invention of the cell phone, they would have to wait to see them and then send them back out to take care of the issue.

Mobile phones have made keeping in touch across long distances easier than ever before. For the most part, the cost of calling across long distances is much less expensive using mobile phones than it is using land lines. Many cell phone plans have free long distance.

Emergencies

Cell phones have changed access to emergency services. Car accidents are called in by more than one person on most occasions and help can be dispatched to the scene faster than ever before. Having the power go out or phones lines cut by an intruder no longer leaves a person in isolation, they have the cell phone for calling out.

Cell phone service has been responsible for saving more lives than has been accounted for. Were someone attempt to put a number on it, it would undoubtedly be in the millions, simply due to being able to contact help no matter where you are located. Doctors can now stay in touch with their answering service at all times, making them more available in the event of emergencies.

Cell phones have become key pieces of equipment in search and rescue operations. The chances are very good that a person who gets lost will have a cell phone. The cell phone can be geographically traced using navigation tools and GPS which is built into most new cell phones. There have been numerous cases of hikers lost in the woods who were only found due their cell phones.

Law Enforcement

This same navigation/GPS technology that makes it easy to find lost people also makes it easier for law enforcement to track down fugitives or missing children. More often than not, criminals forget that cell phones can be traced. They leave invisible footprints in their wake for police and others to follow. These footsteps, in the form of pings sent to communication towers from their phones also become important in prosecuting cases.

In addition to tracking down criminals, law enforcement now finds out about crimes faster than ever before. The hesitant citizen who doesn’t want to get involved physically involved in a happening crime will most often call it in to the police. This gives law enforcement a head start on catching criminals.

Cell phones that include video recording can actually film the crime as it happens, offering evidence that is irrefutable in court.

Business Communication

Gone are the days when a business deal is lost because of not being in the office. Nowadays, business deals can be sealed even when on vacation. The mobile telephone has made the office open 24 hours a day in some cases. Being out of the office is no longer an option because most business people are tethered to their office through their cell phones.

Technology has brought the office to the cell phone with the addition of smart phones and email via the telephone. Documents can be sent, reviewed and sent back all while being on the go.

The Flip Side

On the other side of the cell phone debate are those who argue that cell phones monopolize people’s time. With cell phones the work day is never over and time spent with family or friends can be constantly interrupted unless the device is powered off.

There are safety issues as well with cell phones. Drivers who can’t wait until they are stopped to have a conversation run a much greater risk of being in an accident. Using an earpiece helps the problem but does not eliminate it because the focus is still on the conversation.

Another safety concern that is still up for debate is whether or not they are bad for overall health. Some doctors claim that having a cell phone up to your ear constantly can cause brain tumors. While the jury is still out on a definite answer, it is worth looking into.

Then there is the rude factor. Diners enjoying a quiet, relaxing dinner most certainly don’t want to hear what is going on in other people’s lives and cell phones have done just that. Most people don’t exercise proper phone etiquette and the buzz, ring or tones of cell phones can be heard just about anywhere you go. The Future

As technology makes advancements in the options and features available on cell phones they become more and more important to daily activities. Banking, bill paying, and more are able to be done while on the go and running errands. The cell phone has made down time more productive. Parents waiting on school to let out can do their banking or check their home email.

Those who argue against them are fighting what seems to be a losing battle. Not only are they here to stay, but they are advancing in what they are able do. Today’s world has been shaped and will continue to be shaped by the cell phone.

It seems that just a few years ago air bags in cars were exotic. Today their numbers in some models are up to 10. At first glance, it’s a simple bag made of a smooth, elastic synthetic material. But the fabric of an airbag needs to be very thin and strong, during the accident even the smallest stitches should not not be in the contact area with driver’s face and body. The cushion should’nt also become a trampoline, it must be able to ease the gas pressure on time. In fact, many manufacturers have ceased to sew pillows using the fabric that breaks letting the air out. When packing the airbag they put talc powder to prolong the cushion’s life.

The number of embedded airbags is growing rapidly. Just recently, the car with two airbags was considered as luxury and now having a dozen would not surprise an average driver. All bags are working on one principle but there are many differences. For example, the driver cushions size ranges between 60 and 80 liters, while the passenger needs a much bigger 130-160 liter volume. Side impacts are often no less dangerous than frontal. Naturally, the car manufacturers could not leave it unnoticed over the past 10 years and many cars got their side-bags. They are much smaller than the frontal airbags, the volume ranges from 15 to 25 liters. There are also different forms. Along with the conventional «mushroom type», there are extended “long rollers” in the shoulder area and “inflatable shutters”, reliably protecting the head of the driver and rear passengers. You can more and more often find a pillow under the front panel or on the floor as the driver’s and passenger’s legs should also be protected. And the last invention of “Toyoda Gosei” are the cushions to protect pedestrians. Two rollers fired from the radiator grills and a slit between the hood and windshield, designed to minimize the damage of adult pedestrians, and children.Airbags for motorcycles and scooters are already installed by the customer’s request, in Italy for example, perhaps soon, and they will be widely used on all motorcycles.

Interesting facts about airbags:

* Passenger airbag is usually twice as big as the driver’s due to the greater distance from the dashboard.

* To make an airbag fill up the full volume it needs 25-50 m/sec (for a comparison an eye blink takes about 100 m/sec)

* Airbag opening speed reaches 320 km/h

* “Renault” car maker installs a small airbag in frontal part of the driver’s seat to prevent diving under the seat belt.

Having spent several years in tech support with a company that sells manual transmissions, I have spoken with many customers that have made clutch installation mistakes that cost them dearly in terms of time, money and frustration. These tips are based on my experience with what is frequently overlooked by a novice that is installing a new clutch. This article is NOT a substitute for a good auto repair manual that is specific to the vehicle you are working on! If any of these tips contradict the information in your service manual, follow the service manual instead.

Tip # 1: Lubrication in all the right places (and none of the wrong places!) – Place a light coat of grease on the pilot tip of the input shaft and on the collar that the release bearing slides on. Wipe a VERY light coat of oil on the input shaft splines to prevent rust. Be careful to NOT get any grease on the flywheel, the clutch disc, or the pressure plate.

Tip # 2: Have the flywheel resurfaced, no matter how good it looks. It only costs a few dollars, and the risk of having to remove the transmission again because of a chattering clutch is not worth the money you might save.

Tip # 3: Replace the pilot bearing or bushing. If you don’t have a special pilot bearing puller tool, some service manuals instruct you to remove the old bearing by packing the cavity behind the bearing with grease and using a wooden dowel or old input shaft to drive the old one out. I have found that instead of grease you can use play dough, silly putty, or even some old bread, with equal or better results and way less mess!

Tip # 4: Don’t force anything! If the transmission won’t slide all the way up to the back of the bellhousing, do not draw the transmission up to the bellhousing by tightening the transmission to bellhousing bolts. I can’t tell you how many broken mounting ears and damaged pilot bearings I have seen! If the transmission will not slide all the way in to the bellhousing, then the clutch disc is misaligned or the input shaft is not going into the pilot bearing because the transmission is at an angle. Try this: Install or reattach the clutch linkage, and then have a helper depress the clutch pedal slightly while you wiggle the transmission around to get it aligned. When the clutch disc is released, it will move so that you can get the transmission aligned with the pilot bearing. I fought with a transmission for an hour one time before I thought of this, and then it took about five seconds once I had a helper step on the clutch pedal!

Before tackling your first clutch replacement, I highly recommend reading the complete procedure in a repair manual or factory service manual. Even if you are a seasoned veteran, it doesn’t hurt to take a look at a service manual if you are replacing a clutch in a vehicle you aren’t familiar with.

INTRODUCTION:

In today's digital economy, where many important activities are carried out with the help of computer, the need for reliable, simple, flexible and secure system is a great concern and a challenging issue for the organization. Day by day security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the need for secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming a great concern to the organization. By measuring something unique about an individual and using that to identify, an organization can dramatically improve their security measures. Awareness of security issues is rapidly increasing among company how they want to protect the information which is a great asset that the company owns. The organization wants to protect this information from either internal or external threat. Security plays a very important role in the organization and to make computer system secure, various biometric techniques have been developed. Today biometric techniques are a reliable method of recognizing the identity of a person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics techniques exploit human's unique physical or behavioral practices in order to authenticate people. The features measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry, iris, retinal, voice etc. Biometric authentication is increasingly being used in areas like banking, retailing, defense, manufacturing, health industry, stock exchange, public sector, airport security, internet security etc. Biometric technologies are providing a highly-secure identification and personal verification solutions. Biometric techniques are an attempt in providing a robust solution to many challenging problems in security. Biometrics focuses on the analysis of physical or behavioral traits that determine individual identity. Biometrics can be used to verify the identity of an individual based on the measurement and analysis of unique physical and behavioral data. Indeed, biometrics techniques increasingly are being viewed as the preferred means to confirm an individual's identity accurately.

The history of biometric techniques is not new, it trace its origin from the past. The ancient biometric technique which was practiced was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century, as reported by the Portuguese historian Joao de Barros. The Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the babies from one another. Biometrics the ancient Greek word is the combination of two words -bio means life, metric means measurement.It is the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon physical or behavioral characterstics. The physiological characterstics are fingerprint, face, hand geometry, DNA and iris recognition. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person like signature, study of keystroke, voice etc. Thus a biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic held by the user. Biometric characteristics are grouped using a device called a sensor. These sensors are used to acquire the data needed for verification or identification and to convert the data to a digital code. The quality of the device chosen to capture data has a significant impact on the recognition results. The devices could be digital cameras for face recognition, ear recognition etc or a telephone for voice recognition etc. A biometric system operates in verification mode or identification mode. In verification mode the system validates a person identity by comparing the captured biometric data with the biometric template stored in the database and is mainly used for positive recognition. In the identification mode the system captures the biometric data of an individual and searches the biometric template of all users in the database till a match is not found.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

O Face Recognition

The biometric system can automatically recognize a person by the face. This technology works by analyzing specific features in the face like – the distance between the eyes, width of the nose, position of cheekbones, jaw line, chin, unique shape, pattern etc. These systems involve measurement of the eyes, nose, mouth, and other facial features for identification. To increase accuracy these systems also may measure mouth and lip movement.Face recognition captures characteristics of a face either from video or still image and translates unique characteristics of a face into a set of numbers. These data collected from the face are combined in a single unit that uniquely identifies each person. Sometimes the features of the face are analyzed like the ongoing changes in the face while smiling or crying or reacting to different situation etc. The entire face of the person is taken into consideration or the different part of the face is taken into consideration for the identity Of a person. It is highly complex technology. The data capture by using video or thermal imaging. The user identity is confirmed by looking at the screen. The primary benefit to using facial recognition as a biometric authenticator is that people are accredited to presenting their faces for identification and instead of ID card or photo identity card this technique will be beneficial in identifying a person. As the person faces changes by the age or person goes for plastic surgery, in this case the facial recognition algorithm should measure the relative position of ears, noses, eyes and other facial features.

O Hand Geometry:

Hand geometry is techniques that capture the physical characteristics of a user's hand and fingers. It analyzes finger image ridge endings, bifurcations or branches made by ridges. These systems measure and record the length, width, thickness, and surface area of ​​an individual's hand. It is used in applications like access control and time and attendance etc. It is easy to use, reliably inexpensive and widely accepted. A camera captures a 3 dimensional image of the hand. A verification template is created and stored in the database and is compared to the template at the time of verification of a person. Fingerprint identification.Currently fingerprint readers are being built into computer memory cards for use with laptops or PCs and also in cellular telephones, and personal digital assistants. It is successfully implemented in the area of ​​physical access control.

O Eye Recognition:

This technique involves scanning of retina and iris in eye. Retina scan technology maps the capillary pattern of the retina, a thin nerve on the back of the eye. A retina scan measures patterns at over 400 points. It analyzes the iris of the eye, which is the colored ring of tissue that surrounds the pupil of the eye. This is a highly mature technology with a proven track record in a number of application areas. Retina scanning captures unique pattern of blood vessels where the iris scanning captures the iris. The user must focus on a point and when it is in that position the system uses a beam of light to capture the unique retina characterstics.It is extremely secure and accurate and used heavily in controlled environment. However, it is expensive, secure and requires perfect alignment and usually the user must look in to the device with proper concentration. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric identification and verification methods. It is used in airports for travelers.Retina scan is used in military and government organization. Organizations use retina scans primarily for authentication in high-end security applications to control access, for example, in government buildings, military operations or other restricted quarters, to authorized personnel only. The unique pattern and characteristics in the human iris remain unchanged through one's lifetime and no two persons in the world can have the same iris pattern.

O Voice Biometrics

Voice biometrics, uses the person's voice to verify or identify the person. It verifies as well as identifies the speaker. A microphone on a standard PC with software is required to analyze the unique characteristics of the person. Mostly used in telephone-based applications. Voice verification is easy to use and does not require a great deal of user education. To enroll, the user speaks a given pass phrase into a microphone or telephone handset. The system then creates a template based on numerous characteristics, including pitch, tone, and shape of larynx. Typically, the enrollment process takes less than a minute for the user to complete. Voice verification is one of the least intrusive of all biometric methods. Furthermore, voice verification is easy to use and does not require a great deal of user education.

O Signature Verification

Signature verification technology is the analysis of an individual's written signature, including the speed, acceleration rate, stroke length and pressure applied during the signature. There are different ways to capture data for analysis ie a special pen can be used to recognize and analyze different movements when writing a signature, the data will then be captured within the pen. Information can also be captured within a special tablet that measures time, pressure, acceleration and the duration the pen touches it. As the user writes on the tablet, the movement of the pen generates sound against paper an is used for verification. An individual's signature can change over time, however, which can result in the system not recognizing authorized users. Signature systems rarely on the device like special tablet, a special pen etc. When the user signs his name on an electronic pad, rather than merely comparing signatures, the device instead compares the direction, speed and pressure of the writing instrument as it moves across the pad.

O Keystroke

This method relates to the fact that every person has her / his own keyboard-melody, which is analyzed when the user types. It measures the time taken by a user in pressing a particular key or searching for a particular key.

OTHER BIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES ARE
O Vein / vascular patterns: Analyzes the

Veins in, for example, the hand and the face.

O Nail identification: Analyzes the tracks in the nails.

O DNA patterns: it is a very expensive technique and it takes a long time for verification / identification of a person

O Sweat pore analysis: Analyzes the way pores on a finger are located.

O Ear recognition: Shape and size of an ear are unique for every person.

O Odor detection: Person is verified or identified by their smell.

O Walking recognition: It analyzes the way the person walks.

METHODS OF BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION:

O VERIFICATION: is the process of verifying the user is who they claim to be.

O IDENTIFICATION: is the process of identifying the user from a set of known users.

WORKING OF BIOMETRICS:

All biometric systems work in a four-stage process that consist of the following steps.

O Capture: A biometric system captures the sample of biometric characteristics like fingerprint, voice etc of the person who wants to login to the system.

O Extraction: Unique data are extracted from the sample and a template is created. Unique features are then extracted by the system and converted into a digital biometric code. This sample is then stored as the biometric template for that individual.

O Comparison: The template is then compared with a new sample. The biometric data are then stored as the biometric template or template or reference template for that person.

O Match / non-match: The system then decides whether the features extracted from the new sample are a match or a non-match with the template. When identity needs checking, the person interacts with the biometric system, a new biometric sample is taken and compared with the template. If the template and the new sample match, the person's identity is confirmed else a non-match is confirmed.

[Biometric Authentication System and its functional components]

The Biometric authentication system includes three layered architecture:

O Enroll: A sample is captured from a device, processed into a usable form from which a template is constructed, and returned to the application.

O Verify: One or more samples are captured, processed into a usable form, and then matched against an input template. The results of the comparison are returned.

O Identify: One or more samples are captured, processed into a usable form, and matched against a set of templates. A list is generated to show how close the samples compare against the top candidates in the set.

A biometric template is an individual's sample, a reference data, which is first captured from the selected biometric device. Later, the individual's identity is verified by comparing the subsequent collected data against the individual's biometric template stored in the system. Typically, during the enrollment process, three to four samples may be captured to arrive at a representative template. The resultant biometric templates, as well as the overall enrollment process, are key for the overall success of the biometric application. If the quality of the template is poor, the user will need to go through re-enrollment again. The template may be stored, within the biometric device, remotely in a central repository or on a portable card.

Storing the template on the biometric device has the advantage of fast access to the data. There is no dependency on the network or another system to access the template. This method applies well in situations when there are a few users of the application. Storing the template in a central repository is a good option in a high-performance, secure environment. Keep in mind that the size of the biometric template variates from one vendor product to the next and is typically between 9 bytes and 1.5k. For example, as a fingerprint is scanned, up to 100 minutia points are captured and run against an algorithm to create a 256-byte binary template. An ideal configuration could be one in which copies of templates related to users are stored locally for fast access, while others are downloaded from the system if the template can not be found locally.

Storing the template on a card or a token has the advantage that the user carries his or her template with them and can use it at any authorized reader position. Users may prefer this method because they maintain control and ownership of their template. However, if the token is lost or damaged, the user would need to re-enroll. If the user base does not object to storage of the templates on the network, then an ideal solution would be to store the template on the token as well as the network. If the token is lost or damaged, the user can provide acceptable identity information to access the information based on the template that can be accessed on the network. The enrollment time is the time it takes to enroll or register a user to the biometric system. The enrollment time depends on a number of variables such as: users' experience with the device or use of custom software or type of information collected at the time of enrollment

Biometric Performance Measures:

O False acceptance rate (FAR) or False match rate (FMR): the probability that the system incorrectly Declares a successful match between the input pattern and a non-matching pattern in the database. It measures the percentage of invalid matches. These systems are critical since they are commonly used to forbid certain actions by disallowed people.

O False reject rate (FRR) or False non-match rate (FNMR): the probability that the system incorrectly Declares failure of match between the input pattern and the matching template in the database. It measures the percent of valid inputs being rejected.

O Receiver (or relative) operating characteristic (ROC): In general, the matching algorithm performances a decision using some parameters (eg a threshold). In biometric systems the FAR and FRR can typically be traded off against each other by changing those parameters. The ROC plot is obtained by graphing the values ​​of FAR and FRR, changing the variables implicitly. A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET), which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes.

O Equal error rate (EER): The rates at which both accept and reject errors are equal. ROC or DET plotting is used because FAR and FRR can be changed, is shown clearly. When quick comparison of two systems is required, the ERR is commonly used. Obtained from the ROC plot by taking the point where FAR and FRR have the same value. The lower the EER, the more accurate the system is considered to be.

O Failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER): the percentage of data input is considered invalid and fails to input into the system. Failure to enroll happens when the data obtained by the sensor are considered invalid or of poor quality.

O Failure to capture rate (FTC): Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric character when presented correctly.

O Template capacity: the maximum number of sets of data which can be input in to the system.

For example, performance parameters associated with the fingerprint reader may be:

O a false acceptance rate of less than or equal to 0.01 percent

O a false rejection rate of less than 1.4 percent

O The image capture area is 26 x 14 mm.

Obviously, these two measures should be as low as possible to avoid authorized user rejection but keep out unauthorized users. In applications with medium security level a 10% False Rejection Error will be unacceptable, where false acceptance rate error of 5% is acceptable.

False Acceptance When a biometric system incorrectly identifies an individual or incorrectly verifies an impostor against a claimed identity. Also known as a Type II error. False Acceptance Rate / FAR

The probability that a biometric system will incorrectly identify an individual or will fail to reject an impostor. Also known as the Type II error rate.

It is stated as follows:

FAR = NFA / NIIA or FAR = NFA / NIVA

Where FAR is the false acceptance rate

NFA is the number of false acceptances

NIIA is the number of impostor identification attempts

NIVA is the number of impostor verification attempts

False Rejection Rate / FRR The probability that a biometric system will fail to identify an enrollee, or verify the legitimate claimed identity of an enrollee. Also known as a Type I error rate.

It is stated as follows:

FRR = NFR / NEIA or FRR = NFR / NEVA

Where FRR is the false rejection rate

NFR is the number of false rejections

NEIA is the number of enrollee identification attempts

NEVA is the number of enrollee verification attempts

Crossover Error Rate (CER)

Represent the point at which the false reject rate = the false acceptance rate.

Stated in percentage

Good for comparing different biometrics systems

A system with a CER of 3 will be more accurate than a system with a CER of 4

BIOMETRICS USE IN INDUSTRY

Punjab National Bank (PNB) installed its first biometric ATM at a village in Gautam Budh Nagar (UP) to spread financial inclusion. "The move would help illuminate and semi-literate customers to do banking transaction any time.

Union Bank of India biometric smart cards launched. Hawkers and small traders could avail loan from the bank using the card.

In Coca-Cola Co., hand-scanning machines are used to replace the time card monitoring for the workers. In New Jersey and six other states, fingerprint scanners are now used to crack down on people claiming welfare benefits under two different names.

In Cook County, Illinois, a sophisticated camera that analyzes the iris patterns of an individual's eyeball is helping ensure that the right people are released from jail. At Purdue University in Indiana, the campus credit union is installing automated teller machines with a finger scanner that will eliminate the need for plastic bankcards and personal identification numbers.

MasterCard International Inc. And Visa USA Inc., the world's two largest credit card companies, have begun to study the feasibility of using finger-scanning devices at the point of sale to verify that the card user is really the card holder. The scanners would compare fingerprints with biometric information stored on a microchip embedded in the credit card.
Walt Disney World in Orlando has started taking hand scans of people who purchase yearly passes. These visitors now must pass through a scanner when entering the park preventing them from lending their passes to other people.

The technology also received widespread attention at summer's Olympic Games Atlanta, where 65,000 athletes, coaches and officials used a hand-scanning system to enter the Olympic Village.

Selection of Biometric Techniques:

There are a lot of decision factors for selecting a particular biometric technology for a specific application.

1. Economic Feasibility or Cost: The cost of biometric system implementation has deteriorated recently; It is still a major barrier for many companies. Traditional authentication systems, such as passwords and PIN, require relatively little training, but this is not the case with the most commonly used biometric systems. Smooth operation of those systems requires training for both systems administrators and users.

2. Risk Analysis: -Error rates and the types of errors vary with the biometrics deployed and the circumstances of deployment. Certain types of errors, such as false matches, may pose fundamental risks to business security, while other types of errors may reduce productivity and increase costs. Businesses planning biometrics implementation will need to consider the acceptable error threshold.

3. Perception of Users: -Users generally view behavior-based biometrics such as voice recognition and signature verification as less intrusive and less privacy-enabling than physiology-based biometrics.

4. TechnoSocio Feasibility: -Organizations should focus on the user-technology interface and the conditions in the organizational environment that may influence the technology's performance. The organization should create awareness among the users how to use the techniques and should overcome the psychological factors as user fears about the technology. Organization has to also consider the privacy rights of users while implementing the biometric techniques.

5. Security: Biometric techniques should have high security standards if they will be implemented in high secure environment. The biometric techniques should be evaluated on the basis of their features, potential risk and area of ​​application, and subjected to a comprehensive risk analysis.

6. User friendly and social acceptability -Biometric techniques should be robust and user friendly to use and they should function reliably for a long period of time. The techniques should not divide the society into two group ie digital and non digital society.

7. Legal Feasibility-Government has to form a regulatory statuary framework for the use of biometric techniques in various commercial applications. It should form a standard regulatory framework for use of these techniques in commercial applications or transactions. If required the framework has to be regulated and changed time to time.

8. Privacy-As biometric techniques rely on personal physical characteristics, an act has to be made to protect the individual's privacy data not to be used by other. A data protection law has to be created in order to protect the person's privacy data.
Criteria for evaluating biometric technologies.

The reliability and acceptance of a system depends on the effectiveness of the system, how the system is protected against unauthorized modification, knowledge or use, how the systems provide solutions to the threats and its ability and effectiveness to identify system's abuses.

These biometric methods use data compression algorithms, protocols and codes. These algorithms can be classified in three categories:

O Statistical modeling methods,

O Dynamic programming,

O Neural networks.

The mathematical tools used in biometric procedure need to be evaluated. Mathematical analysis and proofs of the algorithms need to be evaluated by experts on the particular fields. If algorithms implement "wrong" mathematics then the algorithms are wrong and the systems based on these algorithms are vulnerable. If the algorithms used in the biometric methods have "leaks", or if efficient decoding algorithms can be found then the biometric methods themselves are vulnerable and thus the systems based on these methods become unsafe.

Different algorithms offer different degrees of security, it depends on how hard they are to break. If the cost required to break an algorithm is greater than the value of the data then we are probably safe. In our case where biometric methods are used in financial transactions where a lot of money is involved it makes it worth it for an intruder to spend the money for cryptanalysis.

The cryptographic algorithms or techniques used to implement the algorithms and protocols can be vulnerable to attacks. Attacks can also be understood against the protocols themselves or aged standard algorithms. Thus criteria should be set for the proper evaluation of the biometric methods addressing these theoretic concerns.

The evaluation of the biometric systems is based on their implementation. There are four basic steps in the implementation of the biometric systems which imposes the formation of evaluative criteria.

O Capture of the users attribute.

O Template generation of the users attribute.

O Comparison of the input with the stored template for the authorized user.

O Decision on access acceptance or rejection.

Applications of biometric techniques

Biometrics is an emerging technology which has been widely used in different organization for the security purpose. Biometrics can be used to prevent unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks. It can be used during transactions conducted via telephone and Internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking). Due to increased security threats, many countries have started using biometrics for border control and national ID cards. The use of biometric identification or verification systems are widely used in different companies as well as the government agencies. The applications where biometric technique has its presence are

O Identity cards and passports.

O Banking, using ATMs, Accessing Network Resource

O Physical access control of buildings, areas, doors and cars.

O Personal identification

O Equipment access control

O Electronic access to services (e-banking, e-commerce)

O Travel and Transportation, Sporting Event

O Border control

O Banking and finance, Shopping Mall

O Airport security

O Cyber ​​security

O Time Management in Organization

O Voice Recognition (Telebanking)

O Prison visitor monitoring system.

O Voting System

Prospects of Biometric Techniques:

The biometric industry is at an infancy stage in India, but is growing fast to capture the entire market. This technique is expanding both into private and public areas of application. Biometric applications need to interconnect to multiple devices and legacy applications. The industry market and consumer markets are adopting biometric technologies for increased security and convenience. With the decreasing price of biometric solutions and improved technology, more organization is coming forward to implement this technology. The lack of a standard regulatory framework is a major drawback in implementing biometrics in organization.It is not generally accepted by the users because some organization and society have the opinion that this technology is inappropriate and the privacy data of the users are lost. If proper regulatory framework is not established it will not be accepted by the organization as well as by the user. The devices manufactured for biometric techniques has to comply with standards Increased IT spending in the government and financial sector offers better opportunities for such deployments. Even though there are no global mandated or regulatory frame works as of now, they are expected to arrive very soon.
Standarad law and regulation will open a wide market for biometrics in electronic legal and commercial transactions.

The anti-terrorism act has introduced a wide scope for the biometric techniques to be implemented.

Consumer privacy data has to be protected in order to be widely accepted by the user.
Integration of biometric with different legacy application and hardware.

Biometric technique has a great demand in the telecommunication domain.

The notebook and laptop manufacturer has already implemented the biometric techniques like finger printing for the enhancement of the security.

The biometric industry must address major challenges related to performance, real-world utility, and potential privacy impact in order for biometrics to reach their full potential
Many companies are also implementing biometric technologies to secure areas, maintain time records, and enhance user convenience.

An interesting biometric application is linking biometrics to credit cards.

Other financial transactions could benefit from biometrics, eg, voice verification when banking by phone, fingerprint validation for e-commerce, etc. The market is huge, and covers a very wide range of hardware, applications and services.

Conclusion:

The future of this technology is booming. With the rapid increase of fraud and theft in commercial transaction; It is a great concern for the organization to use biometric as key instrument in eliminating the fraud and flaws in the traditional security approach. Both businesses and consumers are anxious for greater security in commercial transactions. The technology is increasingly reliable and affordable, and the question of the legal enforceability of electronic contracts is settled. While consumers recognize the benefits of biometric authentication, they are linked to fully accept the technology without adequate assurances that companies will keep their biometric information confidential and subject to various safeguards and the existing law providing a limited measure of protection for biometric information so serious protection should Be offered to consumers so that their personal information is not misused. Biometrics will play vital roles in the next generation of automatic identification system. Biometric identifiers must be considered when implementing a biometric-based identification system. The applicability of specific biometric techniques depends heavily on the application domain. Biometrics must be implemented properly to be effective and the consequences considered. Biometrics will become increasingly prevalent in day-to-day activities where proper identification is required. The real future of the technology lies in creating a biometric trust infrastructure that allows private sector and the public sector to handle security needs. Ultimately, such an infrastructure would allow people to move to various locations worldwide while maintaining their security clearance as defined by their physiological and behavioral identities.

Technology refers to the collection of tools that make it easier to use, create, manage and exchange information.

In the earlier times, the use of tools by human beings was for the process of discovery and evolution. Tools remained the same for a long time in the earlier part of the history of mankind but it was also the complex human behaviors and tools of this era that modern language began as believed by many archeologists.

Technology refers the knowledge and utilization of tools, techniques and systems in order to serve a bigger purpose like solving problems or making life easier and better. Its significance on humans is tremendous because technology helps them adapt to the environment. The development of high technology including computer technology’s Internet and the telephone has helped conquer communication barriers and bridge the gap between people all over the world. While there are advantages to constant evolution of technology, their evolution has also seen the increase of its destructive power as apparent in the creation of weapons of all kinds.

In a broader sense, technology affects societies in the development of advanced economies, making life more convenient to more people that have access to such technology. But while it continues to offer better means to man’s day to day living, it also has unwanted results such as pollution, depletion of natural resources to the great disadvantage of the planet. Its influence on society can also be seen in how people use technology and its ethical significance in the society. Debates on the advantages and disadvantages of technology constantly arise questioning the impact of technology on the improvement or worsening of human condition. Some movements have even risen to criticize its harmful effects on the environment and its ways of alienating people. Still, there are others that view technology as beneficial to progress and the human condition. In fact, technology has evolved to serve not just human beings but also other members of the animal species as well.

Technology is often seen as a consequence of science and engineering. Through the years, new technologies and methods have been developed through research and development. The advancements of both science and technology have resulted to incremental development and disruptive technology. An example of incremental development is the gradual replacement of compact discs with DVD. While disruptive developments are automobiles replacing horse carriages. The evolution of technologies marks the significant development of other technologies in different fields, like nano technology, biotechnology, robotics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and information technology.

The rise of technologies is a result of present day innovations in the varied fields of technology. Some of these technologies combine power to achieve the same goals. This is referred to as converging technologies. Convergence is the process of combining separate technologies and merging resources to be more interactive and user friendly. An example of this would be high technology with telephony features as well as data productivity and video combined features. Today technical innovations representing progressive developments are emerging to make use of technology’s competitive advantage. Through convergence of technologies, different fields combine together to produce similar goals.

I am definitely not very “techie” but my older son has done everything from building computers, to developing websites to teaching classes about how to protect children from internet predators. Over the years he has taught me five things that can be applied to life:

1. No matter what you do, you cannot wreck the system. Even if you get into the wrong place, you can back out and get where you need to be again. Life is the same. We all make mistakes and sometimes think that we are never going to find the right path but, with a little faith and guidance, things can be resolved.

2. If you read the instructions on the screen you can navigate from one place to another. Letting your emotions control the situation when you are facing a computer or a stressful life situation with not help! Slow down. Take a breath and examine what is in front of you. Chances are that the answers are right in front of your eyes.

3. When the little blue circle is spinning you need to wait. Hitting the ENTER key repeatedly will not speed the system up. In fact, Rob has explained to me that computers are often doing updates in the background that we cannot see and this takes time. Life is the same. We cannot expect everything to occur in our when we want it. Sometimes events are happening in the background that we know nothing about. Someone promises to call us but then has an accident. A committee postpones their scheduled meeting so things are put on hold. A shipment is delayed by weather. Don’t take it personally. Things happen!

4. There is always someone who can help. When it comes to computers all you really need these days is a nine year old! Children are not afraid of computers because they have grown up with them. Also, their curiosity has led to expertise and they can usually help you to figure out pretty well any application or project. Life’s problems, on the other hand, usually require the kind of expertise and advise that is gained through experience and/or training.

5. Change is inevitable. You barely get a computer set up or new software installed before there is an upgrade available. Once a computer is a couple of years old, you are out of date. Life is the same. No matter how much you want to hold onto the world as you knew it, there are always changes occurring. Some are positive and some are negative. As a result, there isn’t any point in resenting change or resisting everything that comes along. Think about your options and wisely choose what you need in order to adapt and how you will do that.

Do not be afraid of computers – or of life. If you remember these five lessons that have been taught to me by my son, the computer expert, life will be so much easier!

Being a computer technician pays

nice money and has for a very long time. Why?well,mainly

because a lot of new computer owners fail to learn how to use

and maintain there new computer.

Before purchasing my first computer back in 1998,I took an 8 hour

class on the basics of operating a windows 95 system based

computer..Even with the class,within the first few months,I

had crashed the computer 3 times. This gives you

somewhat of an idea about what we have here today..Alot of

people now are getting computers because there friends have

one,or to just get into the chat rooms,or the adult

sites..point being..they dont know how to use a

computer,much less maintain one.

To save yourself

allot of money and needless trips to the computer shop for

repairs,there are a series of very simple steps you can take

to keep your new computer running fast and

efficient. Myself,I have windows xp home edition

running on my computer. I find it to be the best system out

there at the moment.The choice is of course yours as to what

operating system you install on your machine.

When you get your new computer home and you configure an internet

connection,the first thing I recommend that you do is to get

to the windows update site. The site will automatically

update your new operating system with files to prevent

people on other computers from accessing your data.

Next step is to install an anti-virus and spyware program on

your computer.

If your buying a new computer from a big

outlet,this is usually included with your purchase but not

always.Make sure to inquire about this when purchasing your

computer. Both these programs,the anti-virus and the

anti-spyware are a must have in today’s computer age..You can

get good information from Google (http://www.google.com).

Just type in anti-virus in the search box..you will get

choices for a lot of programs..same for the

anti-spyware.

Over time,you will visit a lot of

websites..Most of these sites has what are called

“cookies”.These are little embedded packages of

data(files),that the sites you have visited leave on your

computer to track your browsing habits. After awhile,these

files need to be purged,deleted from your

computer.

Other files that need to be purged at

least once a week,are your temporary internet files and your

history files. Failing to do this will really slow down

your computer to a crawl and possibly cause a system

crash,meaning you will have to re-install your operating

system.

When you open up internet explorer,at the

top left of the page,you will see options..Look for the

Tools option.Left click “Tools”,then left click “Internet

Options”.From there it should be straight forward for

you.After you have deleted your temporary internet files and

history files,click “OK” I do this at least once a

day,really keeps my computer running fast.

You will need to defragment your files on your hard drive at least once a month.

Over time,if this is left undone,your programs will run slower,your computer will not be running at maximum efficiency. To do this,left click the start button,look for accessories,look for disk defragmentor.Run the program. You will find that if you have not done this for a long time,it will make a big difference in the overall performance of your computer.

For computer users with a DSL or Cable modem:

Sometimes you will notice that your browsing speeds are slower,the websites that your visiting are taking a long time to load.A remedy to this is shutting the computer off,disconnect your modem from the modem box for a few minutes..reconnect the modem and turn your computer back on. This is called renewing the modem. I do this a few times a week and my speeds are always fast.

Now im going to share with you,some things you can do about whats

inside of your computer “the case”or your computers

“hardware”. No matter how clean the surroundings

where you have your computer placed,over time,alot of dust

and particles gather on the inside..your motherboard,inside

the power supply,on your cpu,all your

cards”video,sound,etc.” I clean the inside of my computer

every 3 months and I recommend all new users do it also.

Here is how to do it: First,before you do anything,make sure

the computer is unplugged from the outlet and is completely

turned off! Next is to get a screwdriver for those little

round screws you will need to undo to get inside your

case. When both sides of the case are removed,you will

need a can of compressed air..you can buy this from any

computer store for under 5 dollars. You then spray all

the areas inside the case..you will see the dust and dirt

flyng off from the places you sprayed. Doing this 4

times a year(every 3 months)Is a great way to save a lot of

money and keep your computer running like its brand

new.

I hope you all have enjoyed my

computer tips.

Sincerely,

William

Whether you received a DUI driving a car or motorcycle, operating a boat or jet ski, or some other vehicle, the requirements to reinstate your license are going to include proof of liability insurance. Even if a DUI was received while riding your bicycle, or as a passenger in a car, which really does happen, the consequences are still the same. Insurance requirements to reinstate license are a minimum of $100,000 per person, $300,000 per accident for Bodily Injury Liability and $50,000 for Property Damage Liability (100/300/50). Unless this type of coverage was in effect, on a valid policy at the time of DUI, a Florida FR44 filing to the Bureau of Financial Responsibility will need to be included in a new policy for insurance.

A new policy does not necessarily mean a new car insurance policy. No matter what you were driving or doing to receive a DUI, you can fulfil insurance requirements for license reinstatement with a variety of policies. Any way you decide to “get around” after a DUI, even if it is walking, liability insurance will be required to get your license reinstated. Because of strict underwriting (qualifying) and increased costs associated with a DUI, many convicted drivers will switch from driving a car to riding a motorcycle, scooter, or public transportation. How much insurance goes up after a DUI depends heavily on the type of policy purchased.

Insurance coverage and underwriting requirements, other than the FR44 requirements, varies for different policy types. For example; Florida No-Fault law requires PIP insurance coverage for cars and trucks, while exempting vehicles with less than four wheels. A policy without a vehicle at all, called a non-owners policy, also does not include PIP and the varied policy types can be used to submit a Florida FR44 filing. Since PIP benefits extend to relatives and household residents, companies scrutinize them to determine eligibility and rate calculation. Policies that are exempt from Florida No-Fault avoids the underwriting hassle and inflated expense associated with PIP altogether.

On a car insurance policy with FR44 filing there can be no excluded drivers and the premium must be paid in full because they can not be canceled. Here again, different rulings for different policy types can be a real “life saver” for the convicted driver. Being able to exclude a youthful operator or spouse from a policy, or being able to make payments, can be the difference between affording a policy and cashing in your 401K.

A policyholder accustomed to maintaining Florida minimum liability requirements of 10/20/10 experiences “sticker shock” when they find out they need to elevate their liability ten times to 100/300/50. For many people a driver license is not just a privilege but a necessity, like those who need a valid license to keep their job. Simply doing without insurance after a DUI is not a choice for them and a typical car insurance policy with FR44 may be unaffordable. Thankfully they have alternatives for buying insurance without a car to file their FR44 and receive a reinstated license.

First produced in 2000 as a 2001 model, car enthusiasts did not expect much from this car. The mini SUV market was already dominated by Jeep, Ford, Dodge and even Toyota's own 4Runner, so we waited to see what the Japanese were up to this time. They did not let us down, and as their motto says 'moving forward', they did not just move – they ran and overtook everyone!

Current Highlander

Costing from $ 28,240 – $ 37,195 the 2012 model is no different from the 2011 one, just an insignificant increase in price. In fact was buying one i would go for the 2011 model, which averaged a 4.8 out of 5 score against the 2012 model at 4.6 on consumer reviews. It is bigger than previous Highlander models, entering into the aggressive world of cars like Jeep Traverse and leaving the less folk whining in their cots. It is a smooth ride, very stylish handling and the fuel economy is still something to build on. As for the driving experience, do not expect much from it. All of the Highlander models tend to lull you into simply setting the cruise control and conversing with passengers; The electric power steering tend to be light, and the optional four-wheel-drive system does not give it a chance at filing through a muddy driveway, deep snow, or rutted trails. The cabin is very quiet, with an agreeable combination of comfort, control and driving quality although driver engagement is quite diminutive. Trailblazing in safety is the 2012 Highlander, being named the best by IIHS and scoring no less than a four-star rating in the tough federal tests. This other other features parlayed it to win as the best family SUV, a slot it might just cling onto for a while. Other highlights include upgraded leather upholstery, keyless entry / ignition, tri-zone climate control, power passenger seat and downhill assist control and hill-start assist on the AWD models. As a matter of fact the Highlander, known as Kluger in Japan and Australia was the best-selling Toyota crossover SUV before being overtaken in 2006 by the smaller RAV4.

Design

Three trim levels are offered for non-Hybrid Toyota Highlander models: base, SE, and Limited. The limited and base models were present when the car was initially introduced, but the sport model was introduced in 2006 with a distinctively furious grille design. In Australia it was available in three guises: CV, CVX, and Grande, while a limited edition CV Sport model was also released in 2006. There was no hybrid model available in Australia, the only engine being the 3.3-liter 3MZ-FE. All have cruise control, power features, and a third-row seat. A 3.5-inch multifunction display, satellite radio and USB port are added in the SE, while the Limited gets leather-trimmed power seats. Base and Limited trims apply to Highlander Hybrid models, with equipment rough in sync. A power moonroof, a navigation system, sound-system upgrades, and a power tailgate are among the many option possibilities that can potentially drive the bottom-line price up by thousands.

Interior

The Toyota Highlander crossover SUV can seat up to seven passengers, as of models beginning 2004. The third-row seat is smaller than what you'll find in most competitors, and is really only suitable for children, and the boot space is greatly compromised . However, the middle section of the Highlander's second-row seats folds into its own receptacle, leaving you with a pair of captain's chairs – just like in a minivan. Another added bonus is that these seats slide and recline. At the front are little spaces conveniently placed for family use and the guests at the rear have their own climate control, having not to disturb you as you tune your favorite music. The second row is equipped with a removable center section that creates an alley from the front seats to the third row seats, and it can also move 4.7 inches to and fro depending on where you want extra space.

Engine

Available engines include a 2.7-liter 4-cylinder for the front drive SE model and a more powerful V6 is optional on the base and standard on the sport 4WD and Limited trims. The specifications are as follows:

2.7 liter 4-cylinder
187 horsepower @ 5800 rpm
186 lb.-ft of torque @ 4100 rpm
EPA city / highway fuel economy 20/25
3.0 liter V6
270 horsepower @ 6200 rpm
248 lb.-ft of torque @ 4700 rpm
EPA city / highway fuel economy 18/24 (FWD), 17/22 (4WD), 28/28 (Hybrid)

It is not a wonder this car won the best family SUV, it is rather a wonder it has maintained high market preference since its inception, being Toyota's crossover SUV to ever get close to the Lexus LS 400 legacy. The Honda Pilot is a quick bet on this, although for more power a Dodge Durango would do, but my take is still none other. I think it's the high time i changed my low regarding for Toyota.

There is no denying that California is a lovely state to live in. This is where many celebrities stay. Not to mention, there are many highways, which means there is going to be some accidents. If you drive, then you may get in an accident. Never say never, because you can never predict an automobile accident. If we were able to, then there would not be so many going on. What do you think about CA vehicle insurance? Are you under the impression that you are paying too much?

If you believe you are paying too much for your coverage, then chances are, you are right. It never hurts to look around and see what other companies are charging for the same type of coverage you are currently paying for. This way, you will have a general idea of ​​what you should be paying. When we first did this, we were surprised that we were paying well over the amount that we should have been getting. We saw an improvement in our cash flow when we switched companies. The next month, we had lots of extra cash. We took that extra cash and put it in a savings account for our child's college. What you do with that extra money is completely up to you.

The one way to get cheaper coverage is by turning to the World Wide Web. There is so much that you could take advantage online. By filling out some simple forms, you will come face to face with offers from different companies You will be able to compare those companies side by side. When you are comparing companies, we are sure that you are looking at the price. Naturally, the price is the first thing we looked at when we did this. We looked through all of the companies and picked out eight of the cheapest ones.

Then, we looked through the cheaper ones and sorted through the ones that had good coverage. Then, we sorted through those by looking up reviews and picking through the ones that had the best reviews. After all of this, we came up with the best coverage for us. There are plenty of other ways that you can save on money, such as having a safe driving record. Also, the safety features on your vehicle can help you get discounts on your insurance policy. So, what are you going to do? Are you going to login to the Internet and start comparing so that you can get the best coverage?