Automotive and Technology

Cell phone warranties can be a little tricky and mis-understood if you do not take the time to understand how they work and whether exercising your warranty option is the best course of action in some scenarios. I often get asked this question in my line of work, "should I use my warranty, or should I have you fix it? And many times that question depends on a number of things.

A few of the benefits of having a cell phone repair shop fix your phone is in many cases depending on the problem your phone is having, most reputable companies should be able to repair your phone within three days, if in fact your unit is repairable, Which if it is not, the repair shop should be able to let you know within 48 hours. This 2-3 day turnaround average should also include ordering parts that may not be on hand when dropping your phone off if your phone needs parts. This is compared to sending your phone into the manufacturer which could be anywhere from 5-7 business days, up to 2 or 3 weeks.

Another problem with sending you phone in under warranty is 95% of the time, you're going to get a different phone in return. This is known as a refurbished phone which means you will lose the data stored on your broken phone. Many people assume they will get the same phone back and are very disappointed when they realize their information is no longer available.

Another benefit of having a cell phone repair shop fix you phone is you can save your warranty for larger issues such as losing your phone, which is a larger issue than getting your phone repaired in my opinion. The only option you have with losing your phone would be to exercise your warranty or purchase a brand new phone and in most contracts there is only one warranty per device. So it would be smart to use this warranty option when it is really needed.

If having you cell phone repaired by a repeatable company is and option you are interested in. Then clicking here is a great choice to take in consideration.

Second hand clothes are common among most people. They are especially a favorite among young people due to their low-cost. Many stores specialize purely in second-hand clothes, where people can drop off their clothes. The quality and price of second-hand clothes differs, and it is possible to get them when they are almost as good as new. Many high-end shoppers dispose of their high-end goods after using them for a relatively short time and give them to second-hand dealers, so it is possible to acquire designer goods at very little cost. This article examines the pros and cons of second-hand clothing.

Advantages

Cheap

The biggest advantage of second-hand clothing is that it is cheaper than new clothing. Most second-hand dealers acquire the clothes at little or no cost, and sell them off at a bargain. When you decide to buy second-hand clothing, you will end up saving a lot of money for other uses. They are convenient for parents with small children, because children tend to outgrow their clothes faster than adults do.

Conservational aspect

With respect to environmental conservation, it is better to give off used clothes to second-hand dealers than to dump them in garbage sites. Old clothes are an eyesore when littered around and degrade natural resources. In case the clothes are too worn out, give them out to recycling plants.

Variety

Second hand clothes give you a variety of fashion fads to choose from at a low-cost. You can get access to modern trends from a range of choices with a strained budget. It is possible to acquire a complete set of clothes of relatively high quality.

Disadvantages

Wear and Tear

At the shop, it is possible to overlook some flaws n the clothes before buying. These flaws include running color, loose seams, tears and permanent stains. Often, you end up discovering these flaws after you have bought the item and taken it home.

Skin Diseases

Many people have contracted skin diseases and infections from second-hand clothes. When buying, most people do not clean the clothes thoroughly, and any germs are passed to the new owners. This can be prevented by soaking the clothes in disinfectant before use.

Tiresome

It is exhausting to sort through clothes trying to find the one that is free of flaws. It is also hard to get one size that fits perfectly. However, many have gotten lucky to get good, high quality clothes at throw away prices in second-hand shops. In the end, it makes the whole shopping experience fun especially due to the great items that you can get from a second-hand shop.

There are a lot of things to consider when you are shopping for that laptop, the two most important specifications but are going to be your processor and your RAM. Here I am going to explain some of the fundamental features of both so you can make a better choice when buying a laptop for yourself.

PROCESSOR (CPU)

Intel the world's largest semi conductor maker has initiated the process of transitioning into a quad core line of processors. Their range is branded as Core i3, i5 and i7. If you are hunting for a bargain then you could choose its older Core 2 models, but you would be better off sticking to its latest range.

You could also consider a processor from Intel rival AMD which has a qualifying range of products branded as Turion II and Athlon II. If you are a budget shopper then these processes are well worth considering and will serve the purpose for most tasks. The big difference between processors made by AMD is they are simply not as fast as those made by Intel and they tend to act as a drain on battery life.

The most important task is working out exactly how much processing power you need. In general the Core i3 or i5 are suitable for most people. If however you do a lot of video editing then you are going to need a more powerful processor. Gamers in particular believe they need a powerful processor but in practice can actually get away with a slower chip.

Quad core chips still cost a lot and also tend to drain battery life quite quickly. You can identify a quad core chip by the Q denoted next to the machine's model number. If you use your laptop as your main machine, and not taking it out on the road, or you are a gamer or video editor, the quad chip case becomes more compelling.

The decision over processor gets trickier when you are ordering a custom laptop from a manufacturer. You should as a rule avoid the most expensive chipsets on offer and go for the second or third third least costliest chips. The increase in price is usually proportional to performance. You should not spend more than $ 150 upgrading a processor. If you are simply surfing the internet or word processing, even a dual core processor is more than adequate.

MEMORY (RAM)

4GB RAM is the standard memory offered by most manufacturers even on low end laptops and that is really all you need. Starting prices for a laptop with 4GB RAM are just under $ 500. In the past manufacturers used to make consumers pay through the nose when they upgraded the memory whilst custom ordering. More recently, this practice seems to have changed, and only Apple really still does this.

If upgrading your memory to 4GB costs you less than $ 90, which is what it costs separately, then you should definitely upgrade. Upgrading beyond 4GB is going to be expensive, and the only real reason to do it is if you are video editing, and even then it's still not absolutely necessary when you compare it against the expense. For a desktop, spending an additional $ 100 is no big deal, but for a laptop where it is going to cost you an additional $ 300 for 8GB, it's simply not worth it unless your laptop is your primary video editing device.

Have you ever been conned by a wheel seller and bought fake wheels thinking that they were alloy wheels? You are not alone. This is a practice that has become very common as technology evolves. The funny thing is that they look so much alike that you cannot tell which is which. However, you do not have to worry anymore. Here are the methods you can use to prove that those you are buying are actually alloy.

Metal Wheels have with time emerged to be the best wheels in the market. They are the most preferred wheels by many motorists due to their outstanding qualities. You probably have them on your car and cannot replace them with any other type of wheels. Some of the qualities of these wheels that make them stand out in the wheel manufacture industry include;

· Light weight which makes them more efficient

· Strength which makes them withstand great pressure and exposure

· Good heat dissipation

· Variety of designs and

· Great appearance

These are the major characteristics that make up a good wheel and alloy wheels happen to have them.

Many wheel stores have emerged and claimed to sell alloy wheels, but as technology has improved, so has the knowledge of manufacturers who make fake ones. Thus, a great problem has risen where motorist have bought wheels branded as alloy but they wear out quicker than supposed. Maybe, you have been a victim.

The big question that every motorist asks is; how do I tell that the wheels on my car are actually Metal Alloy?

There are a number of proven ways to determine whether the wheels on your vehicle are alloy or steel.

· Acid test

Metal alloy wheels are made of an alloy of aluminum and another metal. Aluminum is not corrosive unlike magnesium. You have to buy an acidic solution for this test and choose a hidden spot at the back of the wheel. You don’t have to worry when carrying out this test because, if it’s an alloy, no corrosion will take place. However, if corrosion happens to occur, the hidden spot will be invisible. Take some amount of the acid and apply it on the chosen spot. If it’s an alloy wheel, it will not corrode but if it is not, corrosion will take place. This will prove that it indeed is not a metal alloy wheel.

· The Magnet Check

Another method used is the magnet check. Aluminum is non-magnetic. Steel on the other hand is very magnetic. Get a magnet and bring it close to the supposed alloy wheel. If the magnet sticks, the wheel is steel and not an alloy. The reverse will also be true. However, this is not a complete proof that the wheel you have is an aluminum alloy wheels. This is because, magnesium also is non-magnetic. This is why the acid test needs to be done.

· The Visual check

This is where you use your eyes and the knowledge you have to check the wheels. If the rim is entirely painted black and it doesn’t appear like an aftermarket wheel, it definitely is not alloy. Another way of telling by visual checking is verifying if the wheel has a hub cap. If it’s there, this is not an alloy either. Most alloy wheels do not use hub caps.

There might be other ways to tell an alloy wheel from a steel wheel, but these are the most outstanding ones. However, if you are not sure about the wheels after checking, it’s always advisable that you visit your car manufacturer or consult your mechanic. Mechanics know a lot. They have worked with fake and real wheels for long and they can tell the difference by just a visual check.

The above stated; Acid test, the magnet check and visual check are the methods which you can apply to determine whether the wheels you have alloy. The acid test is the best proof and the most appropriate of the three.

Make sure you get the right alloy wheels next time and enjoy your rides!

Rugby kits, particular the shirts, have been an area of considerable innovation over the years. Modern dynamically fitting shirts utilise a number of developments and are a million miles away from the baggy cotton shirts of old.

Major sportswear manufacturers like Nike and Adidas have worked tirelessly to research and develop new technologies to give their teams the edge. Let’s have a look at some of their most recent innovations that you can find on the rugby kits of today and their benefit to the modern day player.

The first difference the casual observer would notice between a modern day rugby kit and the jerseys of old would be the tightness of the shirt. The traditional baggy shirts which were ubiquitous until the mid 90s, allowed the opposition plenty of opportunity to grab a handful of shirt as you ghosted past them. Now tight fitting jerseys have been designed with the aim of helping you to evade tackles and break through the opposition’s defence.

Nike now use a Dri FIT fabric to make their rugby kits, which aims to reduce the build up of sweat by dragging moisture away from the body and into the quick drying fabric of the shirt to keep players both cool and dry. This material is extensively tested at Loughborough University to ensure both strength and flexibility.

The collars on many of the present day rugby kits are also elasticised to keep the shirts closer to the body and reduce the opportunity for opposing players to grab hold of any part of the shirt. To this means, the hemlines of modern day Nike kits have the addition of a silicone gripper which works to keep the shirt close to the body.

On the torso of some modern rugby shirts is a strategically placed gripper panel which helps players to keep control of the ball at the point of contact. This is placed across the chest, shoulders and stomach of the shirt in a checked pattern.

It is not just shirts that have been subject to innovation, rugby kits have received a makeover from the toes up. Recent additions to the shorts include a special type of paint which is particularly effective at drying players’ hands during a game and keeping their ball control sharp. The socks now feature material which improves their strength, along with a far better fitting footbed which enhances comfort and reduces the frequency of blisters.

When you have an older computer you need old computer parts when you are upgrading or repairing it. Most new systems are not compatible with the older ones and the same holds true for their parts. For example, if you want to upgrade the RAM in your older system you will find that the styles on the market today are not able to work with your older system. You will have to look for used or refurbished RAM since the older styles are no longer being manufactured. Since the RAM is no longer being produced, the only option for replacement or upgrade is to buy used or old RAM from retailers and wholesalers that offer it.

Where To Find Old Computer Parts

When you are looking for computer parts that are outdated, obsolete or rare it can be tough to locate them. The best places to look are at computer repair shops in your area and of course online. If you are going to spend time calling around to local repair shops, be sure you know what you are asking for. If the system is not running and you do not know what it needs, you will need to contact the repair shop first anyways. If you do know what the system needs you can avoid the repair shop and start shopping online, as long as you know what the part is you're looking for. Say RAM for instance, if you are upgrading it, some of the older systems will require you to have identical chips side by side. You need to know what motherboard is in your system to find out what it will support. You may be able to find large pieces of RAM but if your board does not support it you will have wasted your money.

When you feel confident that you know what parts you need and that you understand what your board will support, start shopping around. You may be surprised to find that just because they are old computer parts does not mean they are cheap computer parts. Many times you will end up paying more for an outdated and obsolete part than you would for a new one. This is mainly due to the fact that the manufacturer has stopped production on the parts and they have become extremely rare. RAM is typically the most expensive component you can buy for your older system, it is the most common part that gets upgraded or replaced in an old computer.

Sound cards, video cards and other components are normally still in the same format and can be purchased to fit even older systems. Motherboards are not normally replaced with the same old motherboard when doing upgrades or replacements, so they run fairly cheap. CPU's are sometimes bought out and purchased for repair on an older system but it is rare since you can typically get a motherboard and CPU package for much cheaper and upgrade the system to a newer more compatible system with today's technology.

You can shop around on auction sites such as eBay or look at retailers and wholesalers on the internet that offer older parts for older systems. Many sites will not advertise their old parts as part of their normal stock, so ask if they have what you are looking for.

Warranty on Old Parts

You can expect that you are not going to get a warranty with the purchase of old parts. Since the manufacturer no longer produces the parts you can assume they are well out of warranty. The company you buy them from may offer a warranty or guarantee that the parts will work, but not always. If there is a guarantee in most instances it will be for 30 days or sooner and you will have to notify the company right away if the part is defective in order to get a replacement or refund. If the old computer parts you purchased are extremely rare you may not be able to get replacement if they are defective and only be able to ask for a refund. Do not hesitate to ask the company about their refund and replacement policies on the old parts, it will be the only recourse you have if something goes wrong.

Every little detail matters when you try to shave time off your racing best and when you need to be able to accelerate faster than the competition. This is why NGK spark plugs are a wise investment! They can help you to improve what you offer and make it a viable solution. It may be just one of the many high performance items you have on your vehicle.

Any time you complete a tune up on our vehicle, there are certain things you need to look at and to change. This is the perfect time for you to go with NGK spark plugs and to get some other upgrades in motion. You can do this on your own and you can get it all completed in just a short window of time.

Remove the Older Worn Ones

It doesn’t take much time at all to remove the older worn out ones and replace them with NGK spark plugs. Make sure they are the right fit and you have the right gap between them. The power and the performance you gain with your engine is dependent on them being properly in place. You want the very best outcome, even if you get just a boost for your own pleasure.

You can have the provider you get them from set the gap if you need for your NGK spark plugs. This can be a good idea if you don’t have experience with it or you want to get the job done in the least amount of time. When you change them, this is a good time to also replace your spark plug wiring.

This is to help ensure you have the right amount of power going to them. If not, it can hinder the performance boost these items would otherwise be able to offer to you. The wiring isn’t hard to replace and very inexpensive. If you are going to go the distance with overall performance, you may as well do this as a set.

Find a Fit for Anything you Need

You can use NGK spark plugs to fit just about anything you need too. It doesn’t matter what type of vehicle you are trying to improve. It is important to get those that fit the make and model of your vehicle. The year can also influence what will fit so make sure you have such data. Ask the provider for help if you aren’t sure what will fit the particular vehicle you need them for.

The pricing for NGK spark plugs depends on what you buy and where you buy them. However, they aren’t going to be high dollar. While they are high performance, they don’t cost too much more than basic ones. Once you get them installed and notice the improvements to your vehicle, you will find that amount is well worth it.

You may not believe the difference this change can make, but you will once you get them installed. You may be skeptical at first but it is a wise step to take. You may be trying to get an older collectible vehicle to run better than it ever did or you may be trying to get a brand new vehicle to perform at unbelievable levels. Once you have them installed, that is all it takes.

You will never go back to using anything else. Many people are loyal to this brand for many performance parts. They know they can trust them to last, to deliver on performance claims, and to last a long time. They consider it all an investment that they can feel justified they made.

Today, computer engineering jobs continue to command competitive salaries and opportunities. Their unique skill set makes them invaluable for every company, especially those that involve communication and technology. So if you are interested to pursue a computer engineer job, here are 10 essential information about your prospect career:

1. What does a computer engineer do? They are equipped with the competencies of both an electrical engineer and a computer scientist. The marriage of two highly technical professions directed to a very in-demand offspring.

2. The job description can be used in any industry where computers play a crucial role in its business operation. They can design new systems to meet evolving business requirements, and also help maintain and improve these set-ups.

3. A salary reveals the scope and depth of their duties and responsibilities. In the United States, the median annual learning of a computer engineering job reaches the $ 100,000 pay scale. It is one of the highest paid specializations in the engineering profession.

4. Robotics is one of the more exciting growth areas of a computer engineering career. As businesses continue to seek ways to lower operational costs, the advent of a well-oiled and flawless machine becomes an attractive promise.

5. Much of our modern conveniences are the creation of this field. Since embedded systems combine an important area of ​​this profession, then we owe our digital media players, mobile phones, alarm systems, and x-ray machines to these forward-looking scientists.

6. Because of its popularity, it is offered in a large number of universities and colleges. Each has their own expertise, so choose an institution that can give you the best training in your preferred field.

7. Interesting fact: guess who will be the next to take on a computer engineering job? None other than the Barbie doll, who has been anyone from a fitness instructor to a high-powered business executive.

8. Hardware or software? Computer engineers need not choose one, because they are adept in both. They are concerned from the architecture to the programmed design of a system.

9. Computer engineers have the option to specialize on the following areas: artificial intelligence, computer systems, computer architecture, computer networks and integrated circuits, as well as systems and computations.

10. These are the non-negotiable skills and obligations of a computer engineer: analytical, detail-oriented, and must be able to work in team situations, especially when fixing a systems problem where other departments are involved.

For sure, the job can lead to a rewarding and prosperous career. With the 10 basic facts presented above, you are ready to explore a profession that is attuned to modern times.

The word 'technology' is often associated with ideologies about the future and the advancement of society. Although this statement may be true to a limited amount in that technology is about foreseeing the future, technology and advances in technology are also very much about the present. For example, younger generations are now more skilled in the use of Internet as well as there being an increase in the popularity of computer games. Here, although there are some negative impacts associated with spending too much time on the Internet and using the Internet as a primary source of research, the present level of encouragement for using technology in schools has helped us as a society prepare for the demands of the Future.

Firstly, in an extract from a survey about Internet and schools, it was found that a "recent informal census conducted through voluntary reporting over the Internet estimates the number of teachers and students (individual and classroom accounts) in the US using the Internet, either Directly or indirectly, at almost 250,000. " (Parker, 1992, p 22-24). Here, the increased usage in Internet services has ensured that school-aged children are better adapted to meet the challenges of technology. Although use of the Internet has increased due to both growth in research and uses for entertainment purposes, there are some negative impacts associated with school-age children relying on the Internet as their primary source of research.

Becoming over reliant on the Internet for research due to the level of convenience may result in a lesser range of reference materials used for essays and academic arguments. Also, it creates a bias in terms of the amount of information found. For example, authors in societies that do not have access to the Internet may be marginalized due to the lack of this skill. Also, most Internet sites usually have advertising, and this may cause distractions to the student's concentration. Therefore, though it can be argued that the Internet has provided access to a larger range of resources and has ensured that communication is a lot more effective, it can become ineffective if people become too reliant on this source of information as their main medium for communication .

The debts involving the Internet are extremely contentious, depending upon the various views and interpretations of different members of society. However, one thing is certain, and that is today's generation are better able to adapt to the changes and demands of technology. For example, Washington Reuters stated that "nearly one-third of American Internet users surveyed said they go online just for fun rather than check e-mail, read news, or use a search engine, a sharp increase from a year ago, (Reuters, 2006, p 1). Here, this means that as a society, although there has been an increase in software engineering of games and programs, society has kept up in terms of spending time on the computer in order to use these software and programs.

In conclusion, today's generation has an increased ability to enjoy the benefits of technology and Internet due to the increased usage and reliance on technology. Although the issue is still debatable, as negative effects such as over-reliance on the Internet can affect the functioning of society, benefits also exist, and when used appropriately the Internet can ensure a higher standard of lifestyle.

Bibliography:

California Department of Education, Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, California Education and Data Processing Association, "California Student Information System: A Study of the Feasibility of Implementing a Statewide Process for Electronically Sharing Student Information," Sacramento, CA .: California Department of Education, October 1992.

LaQuey, Tracy and Connie Stout, "High Tech Highway," America's Agenda: Schools for the 21st Century, p. 26-30. New York, NY: Scholastic, Spring 1993.

LaQuey, Tracy, with Jeanne C. Ryer, The Internet Companion. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Lipinski, Michael (1998) 'Some thoughts on the use of the Internet in schools.' Http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow3/oct98/ (Accessed: 16th February, 2006).

Parker, Tracy LaQuey, "Cisco Routers Contribute to the Global Schoolhouse Project," The Packet, p. 22-24. Mountain View, CA .: Cisco Systems, Inc., Fall 1993.

Parker, Tracy LaQuey, "The Internet – K12 Connection: How Students and Teachers Are Using The Internet," ConneXions: The Interoperability Report. Foster City, CA .: Interop, Inc. About enterprise | April 1994.

Washington Reuters (2006) Thirty pct Internet users go online just for fun, http://today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=InternetNews&
StoryID = 2006-02-15T233907Z_01_N15241681_RTRUKOC_0_US-INTERNET-CONSUMERS.xml (Accessed; 17th February, 2006).

Weston, Rachel, "Networks: Where Have You Been All My Life?" Proceedings, Connecting with the Future Today: NASA and the Center for Educational Statistics, February 1994.

Introduction to the Topic

Australia is one of only a few countries with the capabilities to design cars from scratch and manufacture in significant volumes. Car sales in Australia are also an important factor of the Australian Automotive Industry and the Australian Economy in total.

The Australian Auto Industry (A.A.I. in short) can be divided into two interrelated sectors, the Production ( Manufacturing) sector and the Car Sales (or Import-Sales) sector, both equally important for the total performance of the A.A.I. On one hand, the Manufacturing sector refers to the market conditions under which Australian Manufacturing businesses compete, by producing vehicles and related products, with the main aim of maximizing profits. On the other hand, the Sales sector refers to the market conditions under which car representative sale businesses compete, by the sale of cars and related products, having the same aim with businesses within sector one.

It is very important to state the distinction between these two sectors within the A.A.I., as we will be talking about two different market structures, business strategies, competition conditions, e.t.c. In order to analyse these market structures it would be appropriate to develop two economic models, one for each A.A.I. sector.

1.1-Analyzing the Manufacturing Sector

There is only one market structure that can best describe the market conditions in the Manufacturing sector if A.A.I., this is Oligopoly. As there are only two organizations that produce cars in Australia, and these are Ford and Holden, the competition methods and pricing strategies are based between these two organizations. The following economic model shall help define the competition and economic conditions for the Australian Automotive Manufacturing market.

The first important characteristic of Oligopoly that needs to be stated is that prices between competitors tend to be “sticky”, which means that they change less frequently than any other market structure. This statement will be explained in more detail later on, when we will be developing the Game-Theory model, as it is a very important concept of competition. The second most important characteristic is that when prices do change, firms are likely to change their pricing policies together. These two characteristics can boost up competition within the market. Firms will either try to match rivals’ price changes or ignore them. This is depended on the Game-Theory that is explained bellow.

However, the recent market conditions for the Australian Automotive Industry and the actions of the Australian Government have worsen the competition conditions and possible pricing options available for firms in the market. The production and maintenance costs for a manufacturing business in Australia are already high and rising, mostly due to lack of economic resources and advance of technology. That is, as Holden and Ford try to compete each other, given that prices tend to be “sticky”, they are forced to focus on technological advantage and marketing. Both of these business sectors produce high costs. Furthermore, the Australian government has made it clear that is unwilling to further subsidize automotive organizations in the market. All these factors stated above produce a negative effect on the competitiveness of both firms. In other words, rising costs alongside with decreased revenue push firms in experiencing lower and decreasing levels of profitability.

Profitability and the level of competitiveness are highly interrelated in an oligopolistic market structure, being the two most important factors, alongside with product differentiation, in the competition policies that the firms follow. When we say that the level of competitiveness of a firm is very low, we mean that the firm cannot react effectively to any price changes or competition changes or even changes in production costs. This may leave the firm depended on its’ competitor’s pricing and competition actions, not being able to affect the market competitiveness at all. The firm is then exposed to external danger and can be pushed out of the market, or even worse to shut production and declare bankrupt.

1.2- The Game-Theory Model for Oligopoly

The Game Theory model is used to explain the pricing and competition policies of firms in an oligopolistic market structure. Furthermore, it can show the few different competition policies based on pricing that the two firms can follow, that is High and Low as stated above. All firms in this market structure follow a Game-Theory model, although it is surely more detailed than our example, in the process of trying to forecast competitors’ pricing and competition movements and also keep track of the competition levels in the market and market share. But how does this happen?

For example, let’s say that there are four different fields, each divided in half. These fields represent the pricing strategies that Holden and Ford may use in the process of competing each other. Field A and C represent a High-Pricing policy for Holden, while fields A and B represent a High-Pricing policy for Ford. Lastly, fields B and D represent a Low-Pricing policy for Holden, while fields C and D represent a Low-Pricing policy for Ford. When both firms decide to follow a High-Pricing policy they share a profit of, let’s say, $12 million. If Holden decided to move to a Low-Pricing policy it will experience a maximum of $15 million profit, while Ford’s profitability will fall to $6 million. The exact opposite may also occur, while if both firms decided to follow a Low-Pricing policy they would realize a maximum of $8 million of profit.

What we can identify from the above example is that firms in an oligopolistic competitive market rarely change their pricing policies because this may produce a negative effect on their profitability levels. However, Holden and Ford, being the only two firms in the Australian Automotive Industry, they will focus on competing through product differentiation and marketing. That is, they will try to compete by differentiating their products, for example by producing vehicles with different features, or even base their production on technological advantage. Marketing plays an important role here, as it is the main tool that delivers and connects the customer with product. For example, if Holden introduces a new driving technology that improves driving experience and safety and produces this technology alongside with a newly designed vehicle, it is quite likely that Holden will effectively differentiate its newly designed vehicle from a relative vehicle of Ford and lure more customers in the store. Holden may also use marketing techniques to deliver this technology to the public, in the form of knowledge; hence try to boost sales without changing its pricing policy. However, it is important to state that this new technology may produce higher production costs, if not evaluated properly; hence Holden can only rely in increasing its market share to gain greater profitability. The sales part, however, will be analyzed in more extend within the next chapter of this report.

The Game-Theory is not just a theory for the Automotive Industry in Australia, it’s a fact. It shows us that auto manufacturers in Australia have based their competition strategies on all the factors stated above and as much as they possibly can on pricing strategies. They may advertise that they have low prices, but in fact their prices are very stable. If we have a close look at Holden’s or Ford’s websites, we will identify that there is a huge variety of products and each firm competes in that. However, the new market conditions stated before have greatly changed the way auto manufacturers think of the future and this in turn may change their pricing and competition policies, or even determine their existence in the market.

2.1- Analyzing the Import/Sales Sector

While the auto manufacturers are considered to be operating in an oligopolistic market structure, importing and selling vehicles or relative products is a different story. The import and sale of vehicles is the second and equally important business sector of the Australian Automotive Industry. There are many different car selling businesses and we shall only consider first-hand sales, as second-hand sales in general are not included in economics and more specifically in GDP measurements. To enter the industry hard at all as there are not many barriers to entry, however someone who is interested needs to consider of the high costs in setting up an automotive dealership. All businesses in this market are mostly based on product differentiation to compete and while prices are not “sticky”, pricing competition is set up by the market mechanism and tends not to be considered a regular phenomenon. Lastly, cost analysis and cost management play a very important role. All of the above characteristics refer to the Monopolistic Competition Market Structure. In this market structure we will focus on two phases, the short-run phase and the long-run phase, each with different competition characteristics and outcomes.

An important factor that we need to state here is that when the costs of developing a vehicle in the manufacturing sector rise, then the cost for selling the vehicle for a dealership may rise as well. This is always depended of course on if the vehicle was produced in Australia and if it was produced overseas, under what economic conditions was it produced. Price might be “sticky” for manufacturers, however prices will change much easier in this sector if needs be. Here firms will change their pricing policies if costs either rise or fall and this is always depended on the market mechanism. The amount of competitiveness along with the amount of price elasticity of demand will depend on how many rivals the monopolistic competitive firm will have to face.

In such market the following situation is very common, a situation that helps us distinct between short-run and long-run:

Stage One

In this stage the firm experiences economic profits. However, this fact will draw new firms in the market causing the profits to be competed away.

Stage Two

The economic losses indicated in this stage will cause many firms to exit the market, as they cannot keep selling under these market conditions.

Stage Three

In the final stage, the market clears-up, or reaches equilibrium point. As all firms that needed to exit the market have done so, the market mechanism comes to the point where no economic profits/losses are realized by the firms. This is the point where the market is most stable.

Studying the situation above we can identify one very important fact for any monopolistic competitive firm in the Australian Automotive Industry/ Sales sector. That is that in this market structure, in the long run, firms will realize only normal profits and the market mechanism will eventually reach an equilibrium point. Hence, in the long-run firms will compete mostly through product differentiation. However, in the short run firms may experience economic profits or losses and this is what causes firms to enter or exit the market and “shows” firms how to compete and when to apply pricing competition policies.

Conclusion

The Australian Automotive Industry may be experiencing rough market conditions, mostly because there is no more government support; however competition and profit maximization is still possible. Thinking of moving overseas is not always a good option for the manufacturing businesses, as the Australian Economy needs the manufacturing sector, as it represents a reasonably big part of GDP.

Market competition conditions are well defined for every manufacturer or car dealership, hence any business in the market ought to use the available to them competition strategies and achieve higher market share and profitability level or stabilize its profitability levels. Either way, these are the main goals for almost every profit-motivated business in any market type under any market structure. However, every business ought to define the market structure that is operating in, so that it can then clearly define its goals, strategies and policies. The market mechanism is in all cases responsible for all the above strategies and most of the cases responsible for setting up pricing policies or indicating pricing and marketing strategies.