Automotive and Technology

Rugby kits, particular the shirts, have been an area of considerable innovation over the years. Modern dynamically fitting shirts utilise a number of developments and are a million miles away from the baggy cotton shirts of old.

Major sportswear manufacturers like Nike and Adidas have worked tirelessly to research and develop new technologies to give their teams the edge. Let’s have a look at some of their most recent innovations that you can find on the rugby kits of today and their benefit to the modern day player.

The first difference the casual observer would notice between a modern day rugby kit and the jerseys of old would be the tightness of the shirt. The traditional baggy shirts which were ubiquitous until the mid 90s, allowed the opposition plenty of opportunity to grab a handful of shirt as you ghosted past them. Now tight fitting jerseys have been designed with the aim of helping you to evade tackles and break through the opposition’s defence.

Nike now use a Dri FIT fabric to make their rugby kits, which aims to reduce the build up of sweat by dragging moisture away from the body and into the quick drying fabric of the shirt to keep players both cool and dry. This material is extensively tested at Loughborough University to ensure both strength and flexibility.

The collars on many of the present day rugby kits are also elasticised to keep the shirts closer to the body and reduce the opportunity for opposing players to grab hold of any part of the shirt. To this means, the hemlines of modern day Nike kits have the addition of a silicone gripper which works to keep the shirt close to the body.

On the torso of some modern rugby shirts is a strategically placed gripper panel which helps players to keep control of the ball at the point of contact. This is placed across the chest, shoulders and stomach of the shirt in a checked pattern.

It is not just shirts that have been subject to innovation, rugby kits have received a makeover from the toes up. Recent additions to the shorts include a special type of paint which is particularly effective at drying players’ hands during a game and keeping their ball control sharp. The socks now feature material which improves their strength, along with a far better fitting footbed which enhances comfort and reduces the frequency of blisters.

When you have an older computer you need old computer parts when you are upgrading or repairing it. Most new systems are not compatible with the older ones and the same holds true for their parts. For example, if you want to upgrade the RAM in your older system you will find that the styles on the market today are not able to work with your older system. You will have to look for used or refurbished RAM since the older styles are no longer being manufactured. Since the RAM is no longer being produced, the only option for replacement or upgrade is to buy used or old RAM from retailers and wholesalers that offer it.

Where To Find Old Computer Parts

When you are looking for computer parts that are outdated, obsolete or rare it can be tough to locate them. The best places to look are at computer repair shops in your area and of course online. If you are going to spend time calling around to local repair shops, be sure you know what you are asking for. If the system is not running and you do not know what it needs, you will need to contact the repair shop first anyways. If you do know what the system needs you can avoid the repair shop and start shopping online, as long as you know what the part is you're looking for. Say RAM for instance, if you are upgrading it, some of the older systems will require you to have identical chips side by side. You need to know what motherboard is in your system to find out what it will support. You may be able to find large pieces of RAM but if your board does not support it you will have wasted your money.

When you feel confident that you know what parts you need and that you understand what your board will support, start shopping around. You may be surprised to find that just because they are old computer parts does not mean they are cheap computer parts. Many times you will end up paying more for an outdated and obsolete part than you would for a new one. This is mainly due to the fact that the manufacturer has stopped production on the parts and they have become extremely rare. RAM is typically the most expensive component you can buy for your older system, it is the most common part that gets upgraded or replaced in an old computer.

Sound cards, video cards and other components are normally still in the same format and can be purchased to fit even older systems. Motherboards are not normally replaced with the same old motherboard when doing upgrades or replacements, so they run fairly cheap. CPU's are sometimes bought out and purchased for repair on an older system but it is rare since you can typically get a motherboard and CPU package for much cheaper and upgrade the system to a newer more compatible system with today's technology.

You can shop around on auction sites such as eBay or look at retailers and wholesalers on the internet that offer older parts for older systems. Many sites will not advertise their old parts as part of their normal stock, so ask if they have what you are looking for.

Warranty on Old Parts

You can expect that you are not going to get a warranty with the purchase of old parts. Since the manufacturer no longer produces the parts you can assume they are well out of warranty. The company you buy them from may offer a warranty or guarantee that the parts will work, but not always. If there is a guarantee in most instances it will be for 30 days or sooner and you will have to notify the company right away if the part is defective in order to get a replacement or refund. If the old computer parts you purchased are extremely rare you may not be able to get replacement if they are defective and only be able to ask for a refund. Do not hesitate to ask the company about their refund and replacement policies on the old parts, it will be the only recourse you have if something goes wrong.

Every little detail matters when you try to shave time off your racing best and when you need to be able to accelerate faster than the competition. This is why NGK spark plugs are a wise investment! They can help you to improve what you offer and make it a viable solution. It may be just one of the many high performance items you have on your vehicle.

Any time you complete a tune up on our vehicle, there are certain things you need to look at and to change. This is the perfect time for you to go with NGK spark plugs and to get some other upgrades in motion. You can do this on your own and you can get it all completed in just a short window of time.

Remove the Older Worn Ones

It doesn’t take much time at all to remove the older worn out ones and replace them with NGK spark plugs. Make sure they are the right fit and you have the right gap between them. The power and the performance you gain with your engine is dependent on them being properly in place. You want the very best outcome, even if you get just a boost for your own pleasure.

You can have the provider you get them from set the gap if you need for your NGK spark plugs. This can be a good idea if you don’t have experience with it or you want to get the job done in the least amount of time. When you change them, this is a good time to also replace your spark plug wiring.

This is to help ensure you have the right amount of power going to them. If not, it can hinder the performance boost these items would otherwise be able to offer to you. The wiring isn’t hard to replace and very inexpensive. If you are going to go the distance with overall performance, you may as well do this as a set.

Find a Fit for Anything you Need

You can use NGK spark plugs to fit just about anything you need too. It doesn’t matter what type of vehicle you are trying to improve. It is important to get those that fit the make and model of your vehicle. The year can also influence what will fit so make sure you have such data. Ask the provider for help if you aren’t sure what will fit the particular vehicle you need them for.

The pricing for NGK spark plugs depends on what you buy and where you buy them. However, they aren’t going to be high dollar. While they are high performance, they don’t cost too much more than basic ones. Once you get them installed and notice the improvements to your vehicle, you will find that amount is well worth it.

You may not believe the difference this change can make, but you will once you get them installed. You may be skeptical at first but it is a wise step to take. You may be trying to get an older collectible vehicle to run better than it ever did or you may be trying to get a brand new vehicle to perform at unbelievable levels. Once you have them installed, that is all it takes.

You will never go back to using anything else. Many people are loyal to this brand for many performance parts. They know they can trust them to last, to deliver on performance claims, and to last a long time. They consider it all an investment that they can feel justified they made.

Today, computer engineering jobs continue to command competitive salaries and opportunities. Their unique skill set makes them invaluable for every company, especially those that involve communication and technology. So if you are interested to pursue a computer engineer job, here are 10 essential information about your prospect career:

1. What does a computer engineer do? They are equipped with the competencies of both an electrical engineer and a computer scientist. The marriage of two highly technical professions directed to a very in-demand offspring.

2. The job description can be used in any industry where computers play a crucial role in its business operation. They can design new systems to meet evolving business requirements, and also help maintain and improve these set-ups.

3. A salary reveals the scope and depth of their duties and responsibilities. In the United States, the median annual learning of a computer engineering job reaches the $ 100,000 pay scale. It is one of the highest paid specializations in the engineering profession.

4. Robotics is one of the more exciting growth areas of a computer engineering career. As businesses continue to seek ways to lower operational costs, the advent of a well-oiled and flawless machine becomes an attractive promise.

5. Much of our modern conveniences are the creation of this field. Since embedded systems combine an important area of ‚Äč‚Äčthis profession, then we owe our digital media players, mobile phones, alarm systems, and x-ray machines to these forward-looking scientists.

6. Because of its popularity, it is offered in a large number of universities and colleges. Each has their own expertise, so choose an institution that can give you the best training in your preferred field.

7. Interesting fact: guess who will be the next to take on a computer engineering job? None other than the Barbie doll, who has been anyone from a fitness instructor to a high-powered business executive.

8. Hardware or software? Computer engineers need not choose one, because they are adept in both. They are concerned from the architecture to the programmed design of a system.

9. Computer engineers have the option to specialize on the following areas: artificial intelligence, computer systems, computer architecture, computer networks and integrated circuits, as well as systems and computations.

10. These are the non-negotiable skills and obligations of a computer engineer: analytical, detail-oriented, and must be able to work in team situations, especially when fixing a systems problem where other departments are involved.

For sure, the job can lead to a rewarding and prosperous career. With the 10 basic facts presented above, you are ready to explore a profession that is attuned to modern times.

The word 'technology' is often associated with ideologies about the future and the advancement of society. Although this statement may be true to a limited amount in that technology is about foreseeing the future, technology and advances in technology are also very much about the present. For example, younger generations are now more skilled in the use of Internet as well as there being an increase in the popularity of computer games. Here, although there are some negative impacts associated with spending too much time on the Internet and using the Internet as a primary source of research, the present level of encouragement for using technology in schools has helped us as a society prepare for the demands of the Future.

Firstly, in an extract from a survey about Internet and schools, it was found that a "recent informal census conducted through voluntary reporting over the Internet estimates the number of teachers and students (individual and classroom accounts) in the US using the Internet, either Directly or indirectly, at almost 250,000. " (Parker, 1992, p 22-24). Here, the increased usage in Internet services has ensured that school-aged children are better adapted to meet the challenges of technology. Although use of the Internet has increased due to both growth in research and uses for entertainment purposes, there are some negative impacts associated with school-age children relying on the Internet as their primary source of research.

Becoming over reliant on the Internet for research due to the level of convenience may result in a lesser range of reference materials used for essays and academic arguments. Also, it creates a bias in terms of the amount of information found. For example, authors in societies that do not have access to the Internet may be marginalized due to the lack of this skill. Also, most Internet sites usually have advertising, and this may cause distractions to the student's concentration. Therefore, though it can be argued that the Internet has provided access to a larger range of resources and has ensured that communication is a lot more effective, it can become ineffective if people become too reliant on this source of information as their main medium for communication .

The debts involving the Internet are extremely contentious, depending upon the various views and interpretations of different members of society. However, one thing is certain, and that is today's generation are better able to adapt to the changes and demands of technology. For example, Washington Reuters stated that "nearly one-third of American Internet users surveyed said they go online just for fun rather than check e-mail, read news, or use a search engine, a sharp increase from a year ago, (Reuters, 2006, p 1). Here, this means that as a society, although there has been an increase in software engineering of games and programs, society has kept up in terms of spending time on the computer in order to use these software and programs.

In conclusion, today's generation has an increased ability to enjoy the benefits of technology and Internet due to the increased usage and reliance on technology. Although the issue is still debatable, as negative effects such as over-reliance on the Internet can affect the functioning of society, benefits also exist, and when used appropriately the Internet can ensure a higher standard of lifestyle.

Bibliography:

California Department of Education, Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, California Education and Data Processing Association, "California Student Information System: A Study of the Feasibility of Implementing a Statewide Process for Electronically Sharing Student Information," Sacramento, CA .: California Department of Education, October 1992.

LaQuey, Tracy and Connie Stout, "High Tech Highway," America's Agenda: Schools for the 21st Century, p. 26-30. New York, NY: Scholastic, Spring 1993.

LaQuey, Tracy, with Jeanne C. Ryer, The Internet Companion. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Lipinski, Michael (1998) 'Some thoughts on the use of the Internet in schools.' Http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow3/oct98/ (Accessed: 16th February, 2006).

Parker, Tracy LaQuey, "Cisco Routers Contribute to the Global Schoolhouse Project," The Packet, p. 22-24. Mountain View, CA .: Cisco Systems, Inc., Fall 1993.

Parker, Tracy LaQuey, "The Internet – K12 Connection: How Students and Teachers Are Using The Internet," ConneXions: The Interoperability Report. Foster City, CA .: Interop, Inc. About enterprise | April 1994.

Washington Reuters (2006) Thirty pct Internet users go online just for fun, http://today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=InternetNews&
StoryID = 2006-02-15T233907Z_01_N15241681_RTRUKOC_0_US-INTERNET-CONSUMERS.xml (Accessed; 17th February, 2006).

Weston, Rachel, "Networks: Where Have You Been All My Life?" Proceedings, Connecting with the Future Today: NASA and the Center for Educational Statistics, February 1994.

Introduction to the Topic

Australia is one of only a few countries with the capabilities to design cars from scratch and manufacture in significant volumes. Car sales in Australia are also an important factor of the Australian Automotive Industry and the Australian Economy in total.

The Australian Auto Industry (A.A.I. in short) can be divided into two interrelated sectors, the Production ( Manufacturing) sector and the Car Sales (or Import-Sales) sector, both equally important for the total performance of the A.A.I. On one hand, the Manufacturing sector refers to the market conditions under which Australian Manufacturing businesses compete, by producing vehicles and related products, with the main aim of maximizing profits. On the other hand, the Sales sector refers to the market conditions under which car representative sale businesses compete, by the sale of cars and related products, having the same aim with businesses within sector one.

It is very important to state the distinction between these two sectors within the A.A.I., as we will be talking about two different market structures, business strategies, competition conditions, e.t.c. In order to analyse these market structures it would be appropriate to develop two economic models, one for each A.A.I. sector.

1.1-Analyzing the Manufacturing Sector

There is only one market structure that can best describe the market conditions in the Manufacturing sector if A.A.I., this is Oligopoly. As there are only two organizations that produce cars in Australia, and these are Ford and Holden, the competition methods and pricing strategies are based between these two organizations. The following economic model shall help define the competition and economic conditions for the Australian Automotive Manufacturing market.

The first important characteristic of Oligopoly that needs to be stated is that prices between competitors tend to be “sticky”, which means that they change less frequently than any other market structure. This statement will be explained in more detail later on, when we will be developing the Game-Theory model, as it is a very important concept of competition. The second most important characteristic is that when prices do change, firms are likely to change their pricing policies together. These two characteristics can boost up competition within the market. Firms will either try to match rivals’ price changes or ignore them. This is depended on the Game-Theory that is explained bellow.

However, the recent market conditions for the Australian Automotive Industry and the actions of the Australian Government have worsen the competition conditions and possible pricing options available for firms in the market. The production and maintenance costs for a manufacturing business in Australia are already high and rising, mostly due to lack of economic resources and advance of technology. That is, as Holden and Ford try to compete each other, given that prices tend to be “sticky”, they are forced to focus on technological advantage and marketing. Both of these business sectors produce high costs. Furthermore, the Australian government has made it clear that is unwilling to further subsidize automotive organizations in the market. All these factors stated above produce a negative effect on the competitiveness of both firms. In other words, rising costs alongside with decreased revenue push firms in experiencing lower and decreasing levels of profitability.

Profitability and the level of competitiveness are highly interrelated in an oligopolistic market structure, being the two most important factors, alongside with product differentiation, in the competition policies that the firms follow. When we say that the level of competitiveness of a firm is very low, we mean that the firm cannot react effectively to any price changes or competition changes or even changes in production costs. This may leave the firm depended on its’ competitor’s pricing and competition actions, not being able to affect the market competitiveness at all. The firm is then exposed to external danger and can be pushed out of the market, or even worse to shut production and declare bankrupt.

1.2- The Game-Theory Model for Oligopoly

The Game Theory model is used to explain the pricing and competition policies of firms in an oligopolistic market structure. Furthermore, it can show the few different competition policies based on pricing that the two firms can follow, that is High and Low as stated above. All firms in this market structure follow a Game-Theory model, although it is surely more detailed than our example, in the process of trying to forecast competitors’ pricing and competition movements and also keep track of the competition levels in the market and market share. But how does this happen?

For example, let’s say that there are four different fields, each divided in half. These fields represent the pricing strategies that Holden and Ford may use in the process of competing each other. Field A and C represent a High-Pricing policy for Holden, while fields A and B represent a High-Pricing policy for Ford. Lastly, fields B and D represent a Low-Pricing policy for Holden, while fields C and D represent a Low-Pricing policy for Ford. When both firms decide to follow a High-Pricing policy they share a profit of, let’s say, $12 million. If Holden decided to move to a Low-Pricing policy it will experience a maximum of $15 million profit, while Ford’s profitability will fall to $6 million. The exact opposite may also occur, while if both firms decided to follow a Low-Pricing policy they would realize a maximum of $8 million of profit.

What we can identify from the above example is that firms in an oligopolistic competitive market rarely change their pricing policies because this may produce a negative effect on their profitability levels. However, Holden and Ford, being the only two firms in the Australian Automotive Industry, they will focus on competing through product differentiation and marketing. That is, they will try to compete by differentiating their products, for example by producing vehicles with different features, or even base their production on technological advantage. Marketing plays an important role here, as it is the main tool that delivers and connects the customer with product. For example, if Holden introduces a new driving technology that improves driving experience and safety and produces this technology alongside with a newly designed vehicle, it is quite likely that Holden will effectively differentiate its newly designed vehicle from a relative vehicle of Ford and lure more customers in the store. Holden may also use marketing techniques to deliver this technology to the public, in the form of knowledge; hence try to boost sales without changing its pricing policy. However, it is important to state that this new technology may produce higher production costs, if not evaluated properly; hence Holden can only rely in increasing its market share to gain greater profitability. The sales part, however, will be analyzed in more extend within the next chapter of this report.

The Game-Theory is not just a theory for the Automotive Industry in Australia, it’s a fact. It shows us that auto manufacturers in Australia have based their competition strategies on all the factors stated above and as much as they possibly can on pricing strategies. They may advertise that they have low prices, but in fact their prices are very stable. If we have a close look at Holden’s or Ford’s websites, we will identify that there is a huge variety of products and each firm competes in that. However, the new market conditions stated before have greatly changed the way auto manufacturers think of the future and this in turn may change their pricing and competition policies, or even determine their existence in the market.

2.1- Analyzing the Import/Sales Sector

While the auto manufacturers are considered to be operating in an oligopolistic market structure, importing and selling vehicles or relative products is a different story. The import and sale of vehicles is the second and equally important business sector of the Australian Automotive Industry. There are many different car selling businesses and we shall only consider first-hand sales, as second-hand sales in general are not included in economics and more specifically in GDP measurements. To enter the industry hard at all as there are not many barriers to entry, however someone who is interested needs to consider of the high costs in setting up an automotive dealership. All businesses in this market are mostly based on product differentiation to compete and while prices are not “sticky”, pricing competition is set up by the market mechanism and tends not to be considered a regular phenomenon. Lastly, cost analysis and cost management play a very important role. All of the above characteristics refer to the Monopolistic Competition Market Structure. In this market structure we will focus on two phases, the short-run phase and the long-run phase, each with different competition characteristics and outcomes.

An important factor that we need to state here is that when the costs of developing a vehicle in the manufacturing sector rise, then the cost for selling the vehicle for a dealership may rise as well. This is always depended of course on if the vehicle was produced in Australia and if it was produced overseas, under what economic conditions was it produced. Price might be “sticky” for manufacturers, however prices will change much easier in this sector if needs be. Here firms will change their pricing policies if costs either rise or fall and this is always depended on the market mechanism. The amount of competitiveness along with the amount of price elasticity of demand will depend on how many rivals the monopolistic competitive firm will have to face.

In such market the following situation is very common, a situation that helps us distinct between short-run and long-run:

Stage One

In this stage the firm experiences economic profits. However, this fact will draw new firms in the market causing the profits to be competed away.

Stage Two

The economic losses indicated in this stage will cause many firms to exit the market, as they cannot keep selling under these market conditions.

Stage Three

In the final stage, the market clears-up, or reaches equilibrium point. As all firms that needed to exit the market have done so, the market mechanism comes to the point where no economic profits/losses are realized by the firms. This is the point where the market is most stable.

Studying the situation above we can identify one very important fact for any monopolistic competitive firm in the Australian Automotive Industry/ Sales sector. That is that in this market structure, in the long run, firms will realize only normal profits and the market mechanism will eventually reach an equilibrium point. Hence, in the long-run firms will compete mostly through product differentiation. However, in the short run firms may experience economic profits or losses and this is what causes firms to enter or exit the market and “shows” firms how to compete and when to apply pricing competition policies.

Conclusion

The Australian Automotive Industry may be experiencing rough market conditions, mostly because there is no more government support; however competition and profit maximization is still possible. Thinking of moving overseas is not always a good option for the manufacturing businesses, as the Australian Economy needs the manufacturing sector, as it represents a reasonably big part of GDP.

Market competition conditions are well defined for every manufacturer or car dealership, hence any business in the market ought to use the available to them competition strategies and achieve higher market share and profitability level or stabilize its profitability levels. Either way, these are the main goals for almost every profit-motivated business in any market type under any market structure. However, every business ought to define the market structure that is operating in, so that it can then clearly define its goals, strategies and policies. The market mechanism is in all cases responsible for all the above strategies and most of the cases responsible for setting up pricing policies or indicating pricing and marketing strategies.

AutoZone is a retailer and distributor of automotive spare parts and accessories. The company is located in Memphis, Tennessee. It is a well established brand in the market place, providing franchise store with instantaneous recognition as the ‘Automotive Store of Choice’ in their area.

The company has an access to the widest variety of products in the premium brands and their own range of Exclusive Brands. This gives an opportunity to franchisees to differentiate their store from the rivalry, and also allows them to increase their margins.

  • Dedicated VIP Loyalty Program is designed by the company in order to encourage cash customers to approach franchise stores repeatedly.
  • In combination with a retail optimization consultancy, AutoZone also assists franchisees in order to find the best location for their store. This ensures that franchisee’s store is positioned in the highest catchment area, and this eventually ensures more feet coming in franchisee’s store.
  • Designing and customization of a store layout, is done by their Store Development Team with a floor plan, to make sure that the location suits the franchise store, franchisee’s needs and the market.
  • With immediate access to company’s progressive computer system, ordering products at all times is ‘just a click away’.
  • Their long history in the market place explains that they have deep-rooted and strong operational relationships with the suppliers in the automotive parts industry.
  • Company’s Marketing Department is persistently structuring the AutoZone brand with television advertising, leaflets and various other promotional techniques. This ensures that franchisee’s customers are always being reminded that the company is the best suitable for shopping for automotive parts and spares.
  • The AutoZone Family comprises the AutoZone Service Centre that assists franchisees with developing and launching of their store. Other facilities available for franchisees include multi-media Call Centre, Buying Department, Legal Department, and Marketing Department.
  • Company has got a dedicated Buying Department whose role is to ensure that franchisees are supplied with the best quality products at economical prices.
  • Company’s product range lists over 90,000 Stock-keeping units, and its top-notch warehousing facility makes it possible for franchisees to order all of the products from just one place.
  • In order to ensure financial and banking services more accessible & affordable to franchisees, Autozone has conferred special rates and services from leading financial institutions.
  • Company’s strong sense of Family has ensured that franchisees’ workers will have an access to enhanced services such as health care, pension funds and funeral cover.
  • Additional training in a variety of business skills is offered by AutoZone’s newly opened Business Skills Development Training Centre. This training covers Catalogue Training, Income Statement Analysis and more.

When looking to start any business it is important, particularly considering today’s market, that you look for specific ways to cut minimize or reduce overhead and risk. Any business is going to have risk, but it is important to have a full understanding of the amount of investment, startup cost and “ROI” (Return on Investment).

Most people are not aware that 80% of ALL franchise endeavors fail in the first two to five years leaving large debts looming for years thereafter.

One way and in my opinion the best way to cut overhead, startup and investment cost is to take advantage of the new age of entrepreneurship and start a business from the comfort of your home. Opportunities have emerged in the online market that are creating millionaires every single day. Learn more about the exciting opportunities tied to a business model that begins profitable by visiting: http://whatsbetterthanafranchise.com.

Audio-visuals have been utilized for a long time to convey messages in company meetings, lectures and seminars, demos, stage acts and plays, business proposals, and the like. But the technology has been very basic compared with the technology available today.

Audio-visual technology is defined as the tools used to convey information. It employs the use of several inputs, such as videos or slides. Depending on the information you want to convey to your audience, there are a variety of applications that you can make use of, such as multimedia, lasers/holograms, DVDs and video imaging. Technology is mostly used in computer-based education, presentations and performances.

Learning More about Audio-Visual Technology

If you want to use audio-visuals in your reports and demos, you should know everything from designing a presentation to using various portals. Now, the best way to learn about these things is by reading manuals, books and other printed materials. Make sure that you get something that includes guidelines for easy reference. You can also browse the Internet about audio-visual technology for further knowledge.

There are many web sites about audio-visuals that include information and step-by-step guides in using different applications. There are also sites that can teach you how to create and design templates for your presentations. There are others that offer tips on how to successfully conduct meetings, proposals and demos.

Joining online forums that discuss audio-visual technology is another way to learn about them. Here, you can find reviews and opinions from users about audio-visual products and applications. You can also post questions about where to find the best products or services as well as how to use certain products.

Pros and Cons

Using audio-visual technology has great advantages. You can effectively convey the message to your audience with just a few clicks. Presentations can be made more exciting and lively. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages like light distractions, a larger power supply and specialized skills requirement. But overall, once you have learned all the important things, you can start making visually stunning presentations.

The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services you can accethrough the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on several transport layers such as K-line (serial) or CAN.

Transport Protocol

As KWP2000 uses messages of variable byte lengths, a transport protocol is necessary on layers with only a well defined (short) message length, such as CAN. The transport protocol splits a long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transferred over the network and reassembles those pieces to recover the original message.

KWP2000 runs on CAN on various transport protocols such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2. 0 (Volkswagen), and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports only the ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.

Diagnostic Services

The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards, and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following services:

• Diagnostic Management

• Data Transmission

• Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)

• Input/Output Control

• Remote Activation of Routine

Upload/Download and Extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.

Diagnostic Service Format

Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a Request Message, Positive Response Message, and Negative Response Message. The Request Message has the ServiceId as first byte, plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.

The Negative Response Message is usually a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as second byte, and a ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to an EscapeCode service; here, the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partly defines the ResponseCodes, but there is room left for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some of the ResponseCodes, KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always assign the responses to their corresponding request.

Connect/Disconnect

KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and terminated with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services, or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must execute the TesterPresent service periodically if no other service is executed. If the TesterPresent service is missing for a certain period of time, the diagnostic session is terminated, and the ECU returns to normal operation mode.

GetSeed/Unlock

A GetSeed/Unlock mechanism may protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and not defined by the standard.You can execute the GetSeed/Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several levels of security, but the manufacturer assigns these levels to certain services.

Read/Write Memory

Use the Read/WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload/download data to certain memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three-byte quantity in KWP2000 and a five-byte quantity (four-byte address and one-byte extension) in the calibration protocols. The Upload/Download functional unit services are highly manufacturer specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a general upload/download mechanism.

Measurements

Use the ReadDataByLocal/CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data in a way similar to a DAQ list. A Local/CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are then transferred from the ECU to the tester. The transfer can be either single value or periodic, with a slow, medium, or fast transfer rate. The transfer rates are manufacturer specific; you can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is manufacturer specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single-point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

A major diagnostic feature is the readout of Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines several services that access DTCs based on their group or status.

Input/Output Control

KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. One example is redirecting ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

Remote Activation of a Routine

These services are similar to the ActionService and DiagService functions of CCP. You can invoke an ECU internal routine identified by a Local/CommonIdentifier or a memory address. Contrary to the CCP case, execution of this routine can be asynchronous; that is, there are separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult services. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

External References

For more information about the KWP2000 Standard, refer to the ISO 14230-3 standard.

The World Automobile Industry is enjoying the period of relatively strong growth and profits, yet there are many regions which are under the threat of uncertainty. Carmakers look for better economies, market conditions which are ideal to have a successful stay in the industry. The automotive industry has a few big players who have marked their presence globally and General Motors, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, and DC are among them. It has also been suggested that automotive industry has accelerated more, after the Globalization period, due to easy accessibility & facilities among nations and mergers between giant automakers of the world.

Moreover, the advancements in industrialization led to a rise in the growth and production of the Japanese and German markets, in particular. But in 2009, the global car and automobile sales industry experienced a cogent decline which was during the global recession, as this industry is indirectly dependent on to economic shifts in employment and spending making, it vulnerable. While demand for new and used vehicles in mature markets (e.g. Japan, Western Europe and the United States) fell during the economic recession, the industry flourished in the developing economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. Boost in global trade has enabled the growth in world commercial distribution systems, which has also inflated the global competition amongst the automobile manufacturers. Japanese automakers in particular, have initiated innovative production methods by adapting and modifying the U.S. manufacturing model, as well as utilizing the technology to elevate production and give better competition. The World Automotive industry is dynamic and capacious, accounting for approximately one in ten jobs in developed countries.

Developing countries often resort to their local automotive sector for economic growth opportunities, maybe because of the vast linkages that the auto industry of the country, has to other sectors. China is by far the largest market for sales followed by Japan, India, Indonesia, and Australia. Sales figures of 2005 to 2013 indicate that sales for vehicles in China doubled during this period, while Indonesia and India also benefited. However, there was slump in sales during this time in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Interestingly, this year competition in the truck segment has become more intense, with the three big U.S. automakers striving for supremacy in both performance and fuel economy. The Japanese aren’t giving up, either, with both Toyota and Nissan launching new pickups in 2015.

India is the seventh largest producer of automobiles globally with almost an average production of 17.5 million vehicles with the auto industry’s contribution amounting to 7% of the total GDP. It has been estimated that, by 2020 the country will witness the sale of more than 6 million vehicles annually. India is expected to be the fourth largest automotive market by volume in the world where, two-wheeler production has grown from 8.5 Million units annually to 15.9 Million units in the last seven years and tractor sales are expected to grow at CAGR of 8-9%, in next five years, making India a potential market for the International Brands. As 100% Foreign Direct Investment is allowed in this Sector, India is expected to have a speedy expansion, to, soon to become the largest automobile Industry. While India is second largest manufacturer of two- wheelers and largest of motorcycles, it is also estimated to become the 3rd largest automobile market in the world by 2016 and will account for more than 5% of global vehicle sales. As large number of products are available to consumers across various segments, providing a large variety of vehicles of all the types, manufacturers aim towards customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Following the FDI policy, entry of a number of foreign players with reduced overall product lifecycle and quicker product launches have become a regular occurrence in the automotive industry of the country. Indian auto market is seen as the potential market which can dominate the Global auto industry in coming years. Moreover, giant dealers and manufacturers are inclining towards the country because of ease of financial norms as well as an environment so conducive to support in their projects.

With Narendra Modi’s Make in India Campaign, the automotive industry is expected to witness quite a few changes, where 800 Cr have been allocated in the Budget to promote the Energy and Hybrid Vehicles manufacturing. This move is expected to cut down the prices making these electric and hybrid vehicles cheaper and more eco-friendly. It is also expected that this move will curb down the carbon dioxide emissions to 1.5% till 2020. This program will subsidize the purchase of new hybrid and electric cars, as well as other vehicle types. It specifies incentives of up to 29,000 rupees for scooters and motorcycles, and up to 138,000 rupees for cars. Three-wheeled vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and buses will also be eligible for incentives of varying amounts as well.

The used cars sector in India has emerged as one of the major industries due to its easy accessibility and lower rate of interests. But growth in used car sales are lower than new car sales as people still prefer to purchase new cars as opposed to buying used ones. A big reason of this could be the fact that there is a reduced supply of used cars, and high prices of these used cars are pushing the consumers to opt for the low priced new cars. But despite of lower growth compared to new cars segment, used car industry has been showing a fast and steady growth. According to the industry analysts, the sales of used cars are expected to boost up in the next few years.

Till last decade, consumers were involved in unorganised sector of Used Vehicles industry, there were no organised players to assist the consumers in buying of used vehicles, and about 60% of used vehicle sales were customer to customer where there is a trust factor. The remaining sales were managed by the local dealers. But then in 2001, Maruti came with the first company of selling used cars in 2001- Maruti True Value. Despite the automobile industry witnessed slow sales numbers in the last few quarters, the used or pre-owned car segment is growing fast, and is likely to accelerate in future. In fact in the last fiscal year, more used cars were transacted, 10% more than the new ones, according to the assessment by Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. and Honda Siel Car India Ltd. With the organised players stepping in, the used cars market has benefited from fair deals, warranties, better retail network, credibility, transparency, easy availability of finances. These have all made buying a used car easy. Organised used car showrooms provide the platform to the prospective consumers to choose cars from various brands and segments. Car makers have realized the potential of used car market and are making conscious decisions to operate in the pre-owned car sector also. Besides exhibiting multiple brands, the branded used car retailers, also offer one-stop shop for all inquiries and grievances. All the major Car dealers have now established their pre-owned car segment retail showrooms, Maruti True Value, Ford Assured, Hyundai Advantage and Toyota U Trust are some of the major used car dealers.

Constant decline in fuel prices and better financial policies in the past year are the factors that are being expected to be the reasons for the number of new buyers to be increased in the market, which declined in 2013-14. But during this period, one segment that benefited from this decline was the used vehicle market, with increased awareness, financial reforms and organized firms. Most of these used cars buyers are younger people who prefer buying Pre-owned cars which come at lower prices and they get a good bargain for the same. Indian used vehicle market which is still, almost quarter of new vehicle market is growing at a rapid pace. The Pre-owned car sector is expected to grow by 15-18% in coming years.

Also with the rising in number of organized players have boosted the amount of confidence people are putting in buying a pre-owned car. These players not only offer a good line up of used cars but also offer finance & extensive vehicle check facility for 100% customer satisfaction.

The Automotive Industry is an important part of every economy as it is interrelated to growth of sectors of the economy. India as one of the progressing economy is resolving towards making its automobile industry more and more successful ultimately, linking it to overall development. With the Make in India Campaign and promotion of eco- friendly vehicles, India is expected to soon to become largest automobile industry globally. Used vehicle industry is expected huge gains with more and more people resolving to it along with the growth in the new car market. With more resources for the buyers and sellers, the automotive industry is expected to flourish meritoriously in coming future ultimately taking the country forward.